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Studies on spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (School of Life Science, Södertörns högskola)
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lichens are an important group of organisms in terms of environmental issues, conservation biology and biodiversity, principally due to their sensitivity to changes in their environment. Therefore it is important that we develop our understanding of the factors that affect lichen distribution. In this thesis, both spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens at different scales have been studied in southern Sweden.

Generation time of the red-listed lichen Cliostomum corrugatum was examined using Bjärka-Säby as the study site. The results showed that the average age of an individual of C. corrugatum is 25–30 years at the onset of spore production.

The rarity of C. corrugatum was also examined. DNA analysis of an intron from 85 samples, collected at five sites in Östergötland, yielded 11 haplotypes. Results from coalescent analysis, mantel test and AMOVA indicated that C. corrugatum have a high ability to disperse. The study concluded that its rarity is most likely connected with the low amount of available habitat, old Quercus robur.

The changes in the distribution of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden, between 1986 and 2003, were also compared. For each year a centroid was calculated on all combinations of tree and lichen species. The three significant cases showed that the centroid movement pointed toward a north-east or north-north-east direction.

Finally differences in species richness and cover of lichens on large Q. robur were examined between urban and rural environment. The results demonstrated that species number and percent cover was significantly higher on oaks standing rural compared to oaks standing urban. Effects of urban sprawl showed a decline in species richness and cover with increasing age of the surrounding buildings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. , 42 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1471
Series
Södertörn Doctoral Dissertation, ISSN 1652-7399 ; 72
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81433ISBN: 978-91-7519-810-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-81433DiVA: diva2:552438
Public defence
2012-10-22, Plank, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

In the electronic version of this dissertation the Södertörn series Södertörn Doctoral Dissertation 72, ISSN 1652–7399, has been removed.

Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-09-14 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Generation time estimated to be 25-30 years in Cliostomum cossugatum (Ach.) Fr.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generation time estimated to be 25-30 years in Cliostomum cossugatum (Ach.) Fr.
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2009 (English)In: The Lichenologist, ISSN 0024-2829, E-ISSN 1096-1135, Vol. 41, no 5, 557-559 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of spore to spore generation time is extremely important for several reasons. As it is the shortest generation time, it indicates the maximum nucleotide substitution rate over time and provides a rate limit for the evolution of a species. In population genetics most calculations involving time use ‘generations’ as the unit of measurement and in order to convert these ‘generations’ into ‘years’, knowledge of generation time is needed but rarely available. Knowledge of generation time may also be essential for conservation purposes and assessments of migration history. This knowledge also makes it possible to estimate both the age of a population and also to determine to what extent a population represents the genetic diversity of a species (Rosenberg & Nordborg 2002). In this paper we present a method for assessing generation length for lichens using Cliostomum corrugatum (Ach.) Fr. as an example. This lichen was selected for investigation because it is restricted to forests with long temporal continuity (Lättman et al. 2009) and information on generation time is essential to estimate the rate of dispersal at the landscape level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Britich Lichen Society, 2009
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19822 (URN)10.1017/S0024282909990259 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-08-11 Created: 2009-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
2. Estimating the dispersal capacity of the rare lichen Cliostomum corrugatum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating the dispersal capacity of the rare lichen Cliostomum corrugatum
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2009 (English)In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, no 8, 1870-1878 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study was to estimate the dispersal rate in an organism assumed to be confined to tree stands with unbroken continuity. We used the lichen-forming ascomycete Cliostomum corrugatum, which is largely confined to old oak stands. Five populations, with pairwise distances ranging from 6.5 to 83 km, were sampled in Ostergotland, south-eastern Sweden. DNA sequence data from an intron in the small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene was obtained from 85 samples. Nearly all molecular variance (99.6%) was found within populations and there were no signs of isolation-by-distance. The absolute number of immigrants per population per generation (estimated to 30 years), inferred by Bayesian MCMC, was found to be between 1 and 5. Altogether, evidence suggests abundant gene flow in the history of our sample. A simulation procedure demonstrated that we cannot know whether effective dispersal is ongoing or if it ceased at the time when oaks started to decrease dramatically around 400 years BP. However, a scenario where effective dispersal ceased already at the time when the postglacial reinvasion of oak had reached the region around 6000 years BP is unlikely. Vegetation history suggests that the habitat of C. corrugatum was patchily distributed in the landscape since the early Holocene. Combined with the high dispersal rate estimate, this suggests that the species has been successful at frequently crossing distances of at least several kilometres and possibly that it has primarily been limited by the availability of habitat rather than by dispersal.

Keyword
Dispersal; Establishment; Ecological continuity; Old-growth forests; Quercus; Ascomycete
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20234 (URN)10.1016/j.biocon.2009.03.026 (DOI)
Note
Original Publication: Hakan Lattman, Louise Lindblom, Jan-Eric Mattsson, Per Milberg, Morten Skage and Stefan Ekman, Estimating the dispersal capacity of the rare lichen Cliostomum corrugatum, 2009, BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, (142), 8, 1870-1878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.03.026 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2009-09-04 Created: 2009-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-13
3. Changes in the distributions of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden using a new statistical method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in the distributions of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden using a new statistical method
2009 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 27, no 5, 413-418 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Past studies on changes in species distribution have mainly been based on analysis of range boundaries. In contrast, the method used here evaluates shifts in species geographic centroids within a predefined area. We used presence/absence data on epiphytic lichens collected 1986 and 2003 from 64 sites in southern Sweden. A centroid was calculated each year, for each lichen species and substrate. The distance of centroid movement was evaluated in a permutation procedure. In total, 56 lichen species on 22 tree species were involved in the analyses, yielding 30 cases that had sufficient sample sizes both years to be evaluated. Out of these, three exhibited a significant movement of their centroid. The shift of lichen centroids of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Vulpicida pinastri (Scop.) J.-E. Mattsson andamp; M. J. Lai on the tree species Juniperus communis L. was 50 and 151 km with the direction 27 degrees and 48 degrees, respectively. For Hypogymnia physodes on Pinus sylvestris L., corresponding values were 41 km and 30 degrees. The northnortheast shifts of these species in Sweden could be a response to a warming climate.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51269 (URN)10.1111/j.1756-1051.2009.00425.x (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-26 Created: 2009-10-26 Last updated: 2017-12-12
4. Biodiversity in the wake of urban sprawl: loss among epiphytic lichens on large oaks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biodiversity in the wake of urban sprawl: loss among epiphytic lichens on large oaks
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biodiversity often suffers from urbanisation. In the present study, we focused on how the age of urbanisation affects the richness of 17 epiphytic lichens species and their cover on large oaks, with a minimum spacing of 250 m, in urban environments in the city of Linköping (100,000 inhabitants), SE Sweden. We also surveyed trees in adjacent rural areas, selected to have similar distributions of tree trunk circumference and oak density within 300 m. Lichen richness and cover were significantly lower on urban trees compared to rural trees. Furthermore, richness and cover decreased with the length of time that urban trees had been surrounded by houses. Roughly one species is lost every 30 years. Most of the species that were analysed demonstrated a drop in occurrence with respect to the duration of housing development. The reduction in the probability of occurrence varied from 60% (Calicium viride, Evernia prunastri), 80% (Chrysotrix candelaris) to 90% (Ramalina spp.) during the 160-year period of urbanisation considered. Therefore, even if valuable trees survive over the course of development, their lichen flora are likely to become depleted over time.

Keyword
Housing; landscape; Linköping; Quercus; spatial; urbanization
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81432 (URN)
Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-09-14 Last updated: 2014-10-08

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