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Body-composition development during early childhood and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-y-old children
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
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2012 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 3, 567-573 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased recently, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely known. Previous research has shown a correlation between the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and physical activity level (PAL). However, the PAL values used may involve a risk of spurious correlations because they are often based on predicted rather than measured estimates of resting energy metabolism. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjectives: We studied the development of body composition during early childhood and the relation between the percentage of TBF and PAL on the basis of the measured resting energy metabolism. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign: Body composition was previously measured in 108 children when they were 1 and 12 wk old. When 44 of these children (21 girls and 23 boys) were 1.5 y old, their total energy expenditure and TBF were assessed by using the doubly labeled water method. Resting energy metabolism, which was assessed by using indirect calorimetry, was used to calculate PAL. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Significant correlations were shown for TBF (r = 0.32, P = 0.035) and fat-free mass (r = 0.34, P = 0.025) between values (kg) assessed at 12 wk and 1.5 y of age. For TBF (kg) a significant interaction (P = 0.035) indicated a possible sex difference. PAL at 1.5 y was negatively correlated with the percentage of TBF (r = -0.40, P = 0.0076) and the increase in the percentage of TBF between 12 wk and 1.5 y (r = 0.38, P = 0.0105). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The results indicate that body fatness and physical activity interact during early childhood and thereby influence obesity risk. Our results are based on a small sample, but nevertheless, they motivate additional studies in boys compared with girls regarding the development of body composition during early life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Nutrition , 2012. Vol. 96, no 3, 567-573 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84341DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.111.022020ISI: 000307863800016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-84341DiVA: diva2:558817
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|15402|AFA Insurance||Medical Faculty, Linkoping University||County Council of Ostergotland||Crown Princess Lovisa Foundation||

Available from: 2012-10-05 Created: 2012-10-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07
In thesis
1. Development of body composition and its relationship with physical activity in healthy Swedish children: A longitudinal study until 4.5 years of age including evaluation of methods to assess physical activity and energy intake
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of body composition and its relationship with physical activity in healthy Swedish children: A longitudinal study until 4.5 years of age including evaluation of methods to assess physical activity and energy intake
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Childhood obesity according to the World Health Organization is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The proportion of childhood obesity is high both globally and in Sweden. This is of great concern since obese children tend to stay obese in adulthood. In order to develop strategies to prevent early childhood obesity more knowledge is needed regarding factors explaining why children become overweight and obese. Preventive strategies require accurate and easy-to-use methods to assess physical activity in response to energy expenditure as well as energy intake in young children, but such methods are largely lacking or have shown limited accuracy. The aims of this thesis were: 1) to describe the longitudinal development of body composition from 1 week to 4.5 years of age; 2) to study relationships between measures of body composition and the physical activity level (PAL) at 1.5 and 3 years of age; 3) to evaluate if heart rate recording and movement registration using Actiheart can capture variations in total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) at 1.5 and 3 years; 4) to evaluate the potential of a 7-day activity diary to assess PAL at 1.5 and 3 years of age; 5) to evaluate a new tool (TECH) using mobile phones for assessing energy intake at 3 years of age.

Healthy children were investigated at 1 and 12 weeks (n=44), at 1.5 (n=44), 3 (n=33) and 4.5 (n=26) years of age. Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography at 1 and 12 weeks and at 4.5 years of age. At 1.5 and 3 years, body composition, TEE, PAL and AEE were assessed using the doubly labelled water method and indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and movements were recorded using Actiheart (four days) and physical activities were registered using the 7-day diary. Energy intake was assessed using TECH during one complete 24-hour period.

Average percentage of total body fat (TBF) and average fat mass index (FMI) were higher (+3 to +81 %), while fat-free mass index (FFMI) was slightly lower (-2 to -9 %), in children in the study from 12 weeks until 4.5 years of age when compared to corresponding reference values. A relationship between TBF% and PAL was found both at 1.5 and 3 years of age. At 3 years, but not at 1.5 years, this could be explained by a relationship between PAL and FFMI. Actiheart recordings explained a significant but small fraction (8%) of the variation in free-living TEE at 1.5 and 3 years, and in AEE (6 %) at 3 years, above that explained by body composition variables. At 1.5 and 3 years of age, PAL estimated by means of the activity diary using metabolic equivalent (MET) values by Ainsworth et al. was not significantly different from reference PAL, but the accuracy for individuals was low. Average energy intake assessed by TECH was not significantly different from TEE. However, the accuracy for individuals was poor.

The results of this thesis suggest that 1) The higher body fatness of the children in the study compared to the corresponding reference values may indicate the presence of a secular trend in body composition development characterized by a high body fatness. 2) Body fatness might counteract physical activity at 1.5 years of age when the capacity to perform physical activity is limited, but not at 3 years of age when such a capacity has been developed. 3) Actiheart recordings explained a significant but small fraction of the variation in TEE at 1.5 and 3 years, and in AEE at 3 years of age, above that explained by body composition variables. 4) The activity diary and TECH produced mean values in agreement with reference PAL and TEE, respectively, but the accuracy for individual children was low.

In conclusion, the results of this thesis suggest the presence of a secular trend in body composition development in healthy Swedish children, from infancy up to 4.5 years of age, which is characterized by a high body fatness. Methods to assess physical activity and energy intake at 1.5 and 3 years of age provided some promising results on a group level, although further research is needed to increase the accuracy of these methods in individual children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 68 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1457
National Category
Clinical Science Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117420 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-117420 (DOI)978-91-7519-093-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-01, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved

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Eriksson, BrittLöf, MarieHannestad, UlfForsum, Elisabet

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