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Description and evaluation of a method based on magnetic resonance imaging to estimate adipose tissue volume and total body fat in infants
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
1998 (English)In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 44, no 4, 572-577 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Information about body fatness is important during nutritional assessment of infants, but current methods to estimate body composition in vivo are often not applicable in infants. Therefore, a new method based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed. This method, which can assess the volume and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) as well as total body fat, was applied in 11 healthy full-term infants. Their total body water was also estimated using the isotope dilution technique. Adipose tissue volume (ATV) was calculated from AT area in 16 images of the body taken by an MRI scanner (1.5 tesla). AT area was assessed using a computer program in which AT criteria was defined by the observer. ATV of the infants was therefore evaluated once by three observers and twice by a fourth observer. The different observers estimated total, s.c., and non-s.c. ATV with a precision that varied between 1.9 and 7.2%, 2.0 and 4.8%, and 4.2 and 40.7%, respectively. Variations during AT area calculations accounted for a large part of the imprecision when assessing total and s.c. ATV. The linear relationship between percent total body water and total ATV in relation to body weight was significant in all evaluations. Although average total ATV varied when estimated by the four observers, there was, within each evaluation, a fairly constant order between infants with respect to their ATV. It is concluded that the MRI procedure represents a useful possibility to assess body fatness in infants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1998. Vol. 44, no 4, 572-577 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84497DOI: 10.1203/00006450-199810000-00017OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-84497DiVA: diva2:559792
Available from: 2012-10-10 Created: 2012-10-10 Last updated: 2012-10-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Studies on adipose tissue, body fat, body water and energy expenditure during the first four months of infancy using magnetic resonance imaging, skinfold measurements and the doubly labelled water method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studies on adipose tissue, body fat, body water and energy expenditure during the first four months of infancy using magnetic resonance imaging, skinfold measurements and the doubly labelled water method
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During recent years much interest has been focused on the relationship between early nutrition and the future health of humans. Poor growth during early life has been associated with impaired glucose tolerance and coronary heart disease later in life, while rapid weight gain in infancy has been associated with an increased risk of obesity during childhood. Access to appropriate methods that can provide information about adipose tissue (AT), total body fat (TBF), and total energy expenditure (TEE) during infancy is important in order to conduct successful research in this area. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on the combination of a magnetic field and radiowaves can provide images of the body by which total adipose tissue volume (ATV) as well as its distribution between subcutaneous and non-subcutaneous ATV can be assessed. The doubly labelled water (DLW) method can assess total body water (TBW) and TEE. Estimates ofTBW can be used to calculate TBF. Measurements ofskinfold thickness (SFT) represent a traditional technique for assessing body fatness in humans, but even though it is simple in concept and easily applied, it has so far not been evaluated in infants under four months of age. The combination of the MRI and DLW methods represents a new possibility-to evaluate estimates of TBF based on measurements of SFT and to study various aspects of body composition during infancy. A method based on MRI which can assess total, subcutaneous and non-subcutaneous ATV was therefore developed, evaluated and applied in studies of infants.

Total, subcutaneous and non-subcutaneous ATV was assessed in 46 fullterm infants between four and 131 days old (25 boys and 21 girls), and in eight moderately preterm infants (six boys and two girls) with a postnatal age of 44-75 days. The infants were also studied by means of the DLW method to assess TBW and TEE, while TBF and the degree of hydration in fat free weight (FFW) and AT fat content were calculated. TBF based on SFT measurements was also assessed in 43 of these infants.

The MRI method can assess total ATV with good precision and with relative validity. During the first four months of life a considerable gain in ATV was found in both boys and girls. About 90% of the adipose tissue was located subcutaneously. Based on estimates of ATV and TBW, changes in body fat, FFW and in the degree of hydration in FFW were found to be similar to classical reference data for early infancy. During the first four months of life a significant increase in TEE (kJ/kg/24h) with age was found, probably an effect of a gradual increase in physical activity. In preterm infants at term postconceptional age and in fullterm newboms, the ATV (ml/kg body weight), TBW (%), the fat content in AT as well as the proportion of total ATV present as subcutaneous ATV were similar, while TEE (kJ/kg/24h) was 20% higher in the preterm infants than in the fullterm newboms. This difference could be explained by more rapid growth and also by higher physical activity in the preterm infants. Estimates of TBF based on SFT produces biased estimates of body fat in fullterm infants under four months of age. This bias can to a large extent be explained by a considerable variation in the fat content of AT. However, estimates of TBF obtained by means of the SFT method can be used to estimate body fatness in groups of infants with similar AT fat content.

In conclusion, estimates of ATV obtained by means of MRI contributed to new knowledge regarding various aspects of body composition during infancy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2003. 72 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 798
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25697 (URN)10073 (Local ID)91-7373-488-8 (ISBN)10073 (Archive number)10073 (OAI)
Public defence
2003-09-12, Aulan, Hälsans Hus, Hälsouniversitet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-10-10Bibliographically approved

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Olhager, ElisabethWigström, LarsForsum, Elisabet
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