High levels of DDT in breast milk: Intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender
2012 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 170, 63-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean Sigma DDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest Sigma DDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more Sigma DDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk - requiring further investigation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2012. Vol. 170, 63-70 p.
Breast milk, South Africa, Malaria control, Indoor residual spray, Maximum Residue Limit, Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake
Environmental Health and Occupational Health Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84879DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.06.009ISI: 000308450100009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-84879DiVA: diva2:564144
Funding Agencies|Swedish/South African bilateral research agreement||National Research Foundation of South Africa||Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency||Swedish Research Council||2012-11-012012-10-262015-01-14