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DDT in Brest Milk: Intake, Risk, Lactation Duration, and Effect of Gender.
University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
Agricultural Research Council, South Africa.
Norethwest University, South Africa.
2012 (English)Conference paper, Presentation (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

DDT is annually applied indoors of every dwelling at 64-128 g DDT for malaria vector control. We studied 163 breast milk samples from three DDT-sprayed villages and one reference village in South Africa for the presence and levels of DDT. Mean ?DDT levels in breast milk from the DDT-sprayed villages were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) (1.4 mg/kg mf reference village). Primipara mothers from DDT-sprayed villages had significantly higher levels ?DDT in their milk. The highest DDT level in breast milk ever reported from South Africa was detected (5.2 mg/l wm (whole milk) and 140 mg/kg mf). The Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in milk and Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants were significantly exceeded in DDT-sprayed villages (maximum exceeded the MRL 310 times, and the PTDI 99 times). The differences between villages indicated differences in exposure and uptake due to application, substrate, and/or culture. The duration of completed lactation was similar for all four villages and DDT exposure had no effect on the duration. There were indications (not significant) that first-born female infants drank milk with higher ?DDT levels than first-born male infants and vice versa for multipara male and female infants. These patterns were evident in each of the DDT-spayed villages, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk. In view of the high levels recorded, effective measures to reduce DDT exposure are urgently needed, over and above the need to find suitable, safe, and sustainable alternatives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Keyword [en]
DDT, breast milk, risk, lactation, gender
Keyword [sv]
DDT, modersmjölk, malaria, risk, ammning, gender
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health Environmental Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86169DOI: 10.1097/01.ede.0000416706.47517.04OAI: diva2:575319
24th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology: Environmental Health across Land, Air and Sea. Columbia, South Carolina, USA, 26-30 August 2012
Available from: 2012-12-09 Created: 2012-12-09

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