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Nucleation and stress generation in thin films deposited with a pulsed energetic deposition flux
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0099-5469
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents fundamental mechanisms of nucleation and early growth of and stress generation in thin polycrystalline metal films deposited using pulsed energetic deposition fluxes. The effects of a pulsed deposition flux and energetic bombardment on film nucleation was investigated using in situ stress measurements and in situ ellipsometry to determine the film thickness at which the films become continuous. Ag films where deposited using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) in two series - one with constant low pulse power to minimize energetic bombardment while varying the pulse frequency and one with a constant pulse frequency while varying the pulse power, resulting in different amounts of energetic bombardment and different deposition rates - to separate the effects of a pulsed deposition flux and energetic bombardment. The thickness at which the film becomes continuous was found to decrease both with increasing pulse frequency and increasing pulse power. The effects of the increased energetic bombardment and deposition rate cannot be separated due to their coupling. Adatom lifetimes and the coalescence times for islands where calculated for different coverages and island sizes and compared to the time between pulses. It was found that the time between pulses was lower than the adatom lifetimes for certain conditions; this leads to an increase in the adatom density and therefore an increase of the nucleation density resulting in smaller thicknesses for the formation of continuous film. It was also found that the coalescence time for clusters becomes longer than the time between pulses, retarding the coalescence process; this leads to formation of long lived elongated clusters also resulting in a decrease of the thickness at which the films become continuous.

Energetic bombardment during growth of Mo films using HiPIMS is found to result in large compressive stresses without the commonly observed defect induced associated lattice expansion seen when depositing films using energetic bombardment. This and a correlation between the magnitude of the compressive stress and the film density allow us to conclude that the compressive stress is generated by grain boundary densification. Two mechanisms leading to grain boundary densification and thus generation of compressive stresses are proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. , 49 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1570
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86472Local ID: LIU-TEK-LIC-2013:4ISBN: 978-91-7519-706-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-86472DiVA: diva2:577768
Presentation
2013-01-24, Plack, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-12-17 Created: 2012-12-17 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Time-domain and energetic bombardment effects on the nucleation and coalescence of thin metal films on amorphous substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-domain and energetic bombardment effects on the nucleation and coalescence of thin metal films on amorphous substrates
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 46, no 21, 215303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pulsed, ionized vapour fluxes, generated from high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges, are employed to study the effects of time-domain and energetic bombardment on the nucleation and coalescence characteristics during Volmer–Weber growth of metal (Ag) films on amorphous (SiO2) substrates. In situ monitoring of the film growth, by means of wafer curvature measurements and spectroscopic ellipsometry, is used to determine the film thickness where a continuous film is formed. This thickness decreases from ~210 to ~140 Å when increasing the pulsing frequency for a constant amount of material deposited per pulse or when increasing the amount of material deposited per pulse and the energy of the film forming species for a constant pulsing frequency. Estimations of adatom lifetimes and the coalescence times show that there are conditions at which these times are within the range of the modulation of the vapour flux. Thus, nucleation and coalescence processes can be manipulated by changing the temporal profile of the vapour flux. We suggest that other than for elucidating the atomistic mechanisms that control pulsed growth processes, the interplay between the time scales for diffusion, coalescence and vapour flux pulsing can be used as a tool to determine characteristic surface diffusion and island coalescence parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95508 (URN)10.1088/0022-3727/46/21/215303 (DOI)000319116300009 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|VR 621-2011-4280|COST Action Highly Ionized Pulsed Plasmas|MP0804|Linkoping University via the LiU Research Fellows program||.

The previous status of the article was Manuscript and the working title was Time-domain and energetic bombardment effects on the nucleation and post-nucleation characteristics during none-quilibrium film synthesis.

Available from: 2013-07-05 Created: 2013-07-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Atom insertion into grain boundaries and stress generation in physically vapor deposited films
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atom insertion into grain boundaries and stress generation in physically vapor deposited films
2013 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present evidence for compressive stress generation via atom insertion into grain boundaries in polycrystalline Mo thin films deposited using energetic vapor fluxes (<∼120 eV). Intrinsic stress magnitudes between −3 and +0.2 GPa are obtained with a nearly constant stress-free lattice parameter marginally larger (0.12%) than that of bulk Mo. This, together with a correlation between large compressive film stresses and high film densities, implies that the compressive stress is not caused by defect creation in the grains but by grain boundary densification. Two mechanisms for diffusion of atoms into grain boundaries and grain boundary densification are suggested.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98154 (URN)10.1063/1.4817669 (DOI)000322723000036 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|COST Action|MP0804|Linkoping University.

The previous status of this article was Manuscript and the working title was Atomistic mechanisms leading to adatom insertion into grain boundaries and stress generation in physically vapor deposited films.

Available from: 2013-09-30 Created: 2013-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06

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Magnfält, Daniel

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