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Low-Cost Demonstrators: Enhancing Product Development with the Use of Physical Representations
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ever since the early nineties and the advent of affordable and comprehensive 3D-CAD systems, companies have striven to take advantage of cost-effective Virtual Prototyping, gradually moving away from activities involving physical representations of the evolving product. There are, however, aspects of the product development process that are less suitable for virtual exploration. Thus, there are limits to what extent it is effective to rely on digital modeling of physical products. Instead, this thesis argues that a deliberate combination of physical and virtual modeling offers numerous efficiencies that deserve further investigation.

By studying and combining four domains; product development theory, traditional prototyping, computer aided engineering and learning theory, the concept of low-cost demonstrators are identified as a potential means for further enhancement of the product development process. Especially when developing products involving new and unfamiliar technologies, this approach has proven particularly relevant and beneficial. Furthermore, a low-cost demonstrator can potentially serve as a catalyst for innovation and creativity among the members of the design team operating in a CAE intense environment.

In order to verify the validity of the concept of low-cost demonstrators, several undergraduate courses at Linköping University have been studied and evaluated.

Abstract [sv]

Under första halvan av 1990-talet blev verktyg som 3D-CAD allmänt tillgängliga inom tillverkningsindustrin. I och med det påbörjades även en strävan efter effektiviseringsvinster genom att i större utsträckning utveckla virtuella prototyper istället för fysiska dito, en trend som alltjämt fortgår. Det finns dock aspekter av produktutvecklingsprocessen som blir lidande då den fysiska representationen av en produkt under utveckling uteblir. Således finns det gränser för i hur stor utsträckning digitala modeller kan bidra till effektivisering av produktutvecklingsprocessen. Den här avhandlingen argumenterar istället för en kombination av virtuella och fysiska representationer som en möjlig väg till ytterligare effektivitetsvinster.

I avhandlingen introduceras begreppet lågkostnadsdemonstrator. Genom att kombinera och studera fyra olika teoriområden - produktutvecklingsmetodik, prototypframtagning, datorstödd konstruktion samt pedagogisk teori – identifieras denna typ av demonstratorer som möjliga medel för att nå ytterligare effektivitetsvinster. Vidare visar sig lågkostnadsdemonstratorer särskilt användbara då produktutvecklingsprocessen innefattar ny och obekant teknologi. Lågkostnadsdemonstratorer kan potentiellt agera katalysator för kreativitet och innovation i datorintensiva utvecklingsmiljöer.

Till grund för utvärdering och validering av begreppet  lågkostnadsdemonstratorer ligger flera kurser i grundutbildningen vid Linköpings universitet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. , 63 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1563
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86668ISBN: 978-91-7519-727-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-86668DiVA: diva2:579507
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2014-01-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Low Cost Demonstrator As A Mean For Rapid Product Realization With An Electric Motorcycle Application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low Cost Demonstrator As A Mean For Rapid Product Realization With An Electric Motorcycle Application
2005 (English)In: 2005 ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences Computers and Information In Engineering Conference - 31st Design Automation Conference, 2005: Volume 2: 31st Design Automation Conference, Parts A and B, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the last decade, digital prototyping has become a natural part of any industrial project dealing with product development. The reasons for this differ, but the two most obvious is time saving aspects and the amount of cost effectiveness achieved when replacing the physical prototype with the cheaper digital. Time and cost are equally, or even more critical in academic projects. This paper describes the usage of a low cost demonstrator as a mean to reduce both time and cost during a product development project course as well as to guarantee educational quality. The paper also discusses the reason for using demonstrators in an industrial environment. When large product development project courses are given at educational engineering programs, they often strive for imitating a real industrial situation, trying to include all the phases and aspects of product realization. Time is of course critical in both environments, industrial and academic, but for slightly different reasons. A typical industrial project may run over several years while a large educational project-s duration is counted in months. Thus, if the course tutor wants to simulate the whole product development process, within the same project course, there are needs for means that may speed up the project without spoiling the educational message as well as the industrial authenticity.

Keyword
Demonstrator, Elektrisk motorcykel, Rapid product development, Engineering design education
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29729 (URN)15127 (Local ID)0-7918-4739-X (ISBN)15127 (Archive number)15127 (OAI)
Conference
31st International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, September 24-28, Long Beach, California, USA
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-12-20
2. Redsigning Mature Products for Substainability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Redsigning Mature Products for Substainability
2006 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This contribution will discuss engineering design projects with various environmental and sustainable objectives. The automotive industry is facing a major vicissitude regarding the system layouts of their products. Given the rapidly increasing demands for environmentally acceptable and sustainable vehicles, developed even faster and under increasing competition, one could expect a future, or a period of transition, where a “market pull”-situation will exact design methods more adapted for new propulsion technologies such as fuel cells, bio-fuels, hybrid configurations and so forth. When looking at two-wheeled vehicles it is also a matter of a dramatic change in the safety requirements that would affect the design process in a similar way.

This paper presents studies made regarding development of two-wheeled vehicles with strict safety, environmental and sustainability requirements. It also describes what happens when a very mature product, such as a conventional motorcycle, undergoes dramatic changes in propulsion system and safety features and becomes technically immature, but still has to preserve its traditional values in the eyes of the consumer. Over the last two years, the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Linköping University has conducted various projects dealing with these issues using rapid, low-cost, demonstrator development together with digital models. The demonstrator is used as a vehicle to evaluate the integration of technology, as well as less tangible aspects such as ergonomics, drivability, appeal, visual impression etc. This approach has proven particularly fruitful when dealing with new technologies with a high level of innovation. The rapid nature of these projects also makes them suitable for exploring digital collaboration tools aimed at controlling and speeding up the design process.

Keyword
Innovation, Sustainability, Electric Motorcycle
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36391 (URN)31231 (Local ID)31231 (Archive number)31231 (OAI)
Conference
NordDesign 2006, Reykjavik, Iceland, August 16-18
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-12-20Bibliographically approved
3. Modular sustainable light multi-purpose vehicle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modular sustainable light multi-purpose vehicle
2008 (English)In: EET-2008 European Ele-Drive Conference,2008, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In contrast to the major vicissitude faced by the transportation sector in developed countries due to environmental or political reasons, this contribution mainly fits into the discussion on how to make emerging markets adopt sustainable personal vehicles other than automobiles. A modularised light electric vehicle transportation system is presented.

Furthermore, the vehicles included in the presented system would also hold properties suited for transportation needs in developed countries. One issue would be not only a smaller environmental footprint, but also a more attractive physical footprint, in the sense that actual space is a matter of economy in densely urbanised areas.

Keyword
Demonstration, BEV, EV, HEV, market, motorcycle, PHEV, scooter
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43867 (URN)74985 (Local ID)74985 (Archive number)74985 (OAI)
Conference
3rd European Ele-Drive Transportation Conference EET-2008, March 11-13, 2008, Geneva, Switzerland
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-12-20Bibliographically approved
4. Hands-On Assessment During Computer Aided Engineering Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hands-On Assessment During Computer Aided Engineering Education
2013 (English)In: ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition: Volume 5, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2013, Vol. 5, 121-130 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This contribution discusses aspects and benefits from involving physical representations when teaching engineering design and Computer Aided Engineering at Linköping University, Sweden.

The paper presents a syllabus for a comprehensive introductory CAD course. The course is populated by some 300 students on the Mechanical Engineering Master’s and Bachelor’s programs, as well as the Design and Product Development Master’s program. Assessment is made via a project where the students are assigned to model and optimize a small catapult. The catapult is then produced, using cheap materials, by the hands of the students who modeled it. Finally, the catapult is validated by entering a contest, where it is judged in respect of accuracy, weight, and cost. The catapult assignment is constructed in such a way that the students are forced to seek individual ways of applying their newly acquired knowledge of the CAD tool. Some 100 catapults are produced but the material cost for each catapult is only about €4.

The low-cost nature of the catapults originates from research conducted at the Division of Machine Design at Linköping University, where the concept of Low-cost Demonstrators for enhancement of the conceptual design phase has been developed over the past decade. The results from this research point towards several benefits from using physical representations alongside the common digital tools during the early stages of the product development process. Furthermore, evaluation of parameters such as the students’ performance and their own opinions of the course show notable enhancement compared to previous courses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2013
Keyword
Demonstrator, prototype, cad, computer aided design, undergraduate, assessment, learning theory, product development
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Pedagogy Learning Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85498 (URN)10.1115/IMECE2012-89349 (DOI)000350070700017 ()978-0-7918-4521-9 (ISBN)
Conference
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Houston, Texas, USA, November 9-15, 2012
Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-11-20 Last updated: 2016-06-03Bibliographically approved

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Hallberg, Peter

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