Cancer-selective therapy of the future: Apoptin and its mechanism of action
2006 (English)In: Cancer Biology & Therapy, ISSN 1538-4047, EISSN 1555-8576, Vol. 5, no 1, 10-19 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Classical chemotherapy that specifically targets rapidly proliferating cells has been in existence for over eighty years and has proven to be fully successful in only a limited number of cancers. Thus, this review focuses on a novel, emerging approach for cancer therapy that uses alternative, and more unique features of cancer cells. This new approach facilitates the selective targeting of cancer, while sparing normal, non-transformed cells. Examples of molecules that kill cancer cells selectively are: apoptin, E4orf4, viral protein R (VpR), and Brevinin-2R. Below we focus on apoptin, a product of the third open reading frame (VP3) of the chicken anemia virus. Besides discussing apoptin's mechanism of action, we also provide concise insight into the biology of a chicken anemia virus infection. Since apoptin's cancer-selective toxicity depends on its nuclear localization, we broadly discuss mechanism(s) involved in its nuclear retention (both nuclear import and export). We also discuss recent findings on apoptin's molecular mechanism of action, with a focus on the role of Nur77 in apoptin's nucleo-cytoplasmic signaling. Finally, we compare the current findings on apoptin to the mechanism of cancer selective toxicity of E4orf4. In the 'summary' section, besides highlighting important issues related to cancer-selective therapy, we also discuss concurrent approaches towards therapy personalization, particularly those related to the in vivo, and real time cancer therapy efficacy monitoring, using "lab-on-the-chip" and other emerging technologies.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Landes Bioscience , 2006. Vol. 5, no 1, 10-19 p.
adenovirus e4orf4 protein, arginine-rich motif, Bcl-2, cell-death, Chicken anemia virus, circovirus, cyclosome, early region 4, Exportin, large-t-antigen, nf-kappa-b, ngfi-b, nuclear-localization signal, orphan steroid-receptor, Ran, rxr
Cancer and Oncology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86993DOI: 10.4161/cbt.5.1.2400ISI: 000236044500010PubMedID: 16410718OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-86993DiVA: diva2:584173