Apoptosis in liver diseases - detection and therapeutic applications
2005 (English)In: Medical Science Monitor, ISSN 1234-1010, Vol. 11, no 11, RA337-RA345 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
The liver is continuously exposed to a large antigenic load that includes pathogens, toxins, tumor cells and dietary antigens. Amongst the hepatitis viruses, only hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause chronic hepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Of the different antiviral defense systems employed by the tissue, apoptosis significantly contributes to the prevention of viral replication, dissemination, and persistence. Loss of tolerance to the liver autoantigens may result in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). This review outlines the recent findings that highlight the role and mechanisms of apoptotic processes in the course of liver diseases. Among factors that contribute to liver pathology, we discuss the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, HBx, ds-PKR, TRAIL, FasL, and IL-1 alpha. Since TNF and FasL-induced hepatocyte apoptosis is implicated in a wide range of liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, ischemia/reperfusion liver injury, and fulminant hepatic failure, these items will be discussed in greater detail in this review. We also highlight some recent discoveries that pave the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies by protecting hepatocytes (for example by employing Bcl-2, Bcl-X-L or A1/Bfl-1, IAPs, or synthetic caspase inhibitors), or by the induction of apoptosis in stellate cells. The assessment of the severity of liver disease, as well as monitoring of patients with chronic liver disease, remains a major challenge in clinical hepatology practice. Therefore, a separate chapter is devoted to a novel cytochrome c - based method useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of fulminant hepatitis.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 11, no 11, RA337-RA345 p.
Apoptosis, cell-death, cirrhosis, cytochrome c, cytochrome-c, death receptors, factor-alpha, fulminant hepatic-failure, hepatitis, mediated apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition, mitochondrial death pathway, nf-kappa-b, primary biliary-cirrhosis, tumor-necrosis-factor, virus ns2 protein
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy) Cancer and Oncology Cell Biology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86995ISI: 000233423100023PubMedID: 16258409OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-86995DiVA: diva2:584181