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Nasopharyngeal suctioning does not produce a salivary cortisol reaction in preterm infants
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3256-5407
2012 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 101, no 12, 1206-1210 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To investigate whether nasopharyngeal suctioning produces a physiological and behavioural stress reaction in preterm infants and if a possible reaction can be dampened by sweet solution. Methods: Eleven preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive either 30% oral glucose or nothing prior to morning nasopharyngeal suctioning; the procedure was reversed in the afternoon. The study included a total of 44 samples from preterm infants evaluated with salivary cortisol, pain score (Visual Analogue Scale), heart rate, oxygen saturation and recovery time through the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program. For reference, 44 samples from eleven full-term infants were evaluated for salivary cortisol. Results: Regardless of whether or not preterm infants received glucose before nasopharyngeal suctioning, no statistically significant difference was found in salivary cortisol reactivity, pain score, heart rate, oxygen saturation or recovery time. Nor were any statistically significant differences between salivary cortisol baseline and response values found in full-term infants after nasopharyngeal suctioning. Conclusion: In the present setting, nasopharyngeal suctioning was not stressful enough to increase salivary cortisol or pain score. Oral glucose did not alter salivary cortisol levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell , 2012. Vol. 101, no 12, 1206-1210 p.
Keyword [en]
Cortisol; Infant; Oral glucose; Preterm; Stress
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87200DOI: 10.1111/apa.12001ISI: 000310868300023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-87200DiVA: diva2:587465
Available from: 2013-01-14 Created: 2013-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06
In thesis
1. Stress: Clinical and Developmental Aspects of Salivary Cortisol in Infants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress: Clinical and Developmental Aspects of Salivary Cortisol in Infants
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A functional stress-response system is essential for survival at birth, as well as for health and further development. Altered cortisol response and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system function may have both short and long-term effects on health and development throughout life. Cortisol secretion follows a circadian rhythm in adults. Data in the literature concerning basal cortisol levels is scant, with divergent results regarding the timeframe for establishment of cortisol circadian rhythm in children. Nevertheless, cortisol is often studied in stress-related research concerning preterm infants, full-term infants, and infants at high psychosocial risk.

This thesis aimed to investigate at what age cortisol circadian rhythm develops in healthy full-term infants, preterm infants, and infants at high psychosocial risk and to identify whether such development is dependent on gestational or postnatal age. A secondary aim was to investigate whether either behavioral regularity or daily life trauma are associated with establishment of cortisol circadian rhythm. The last two interventional studies explored whether a) parental participation in the Hagadal daycare attachment program in one  study and b) oral administration of glucose during nasopharyngeal suctioning in the other study influenced development of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm and/or cortisol levels. The effects, if any, of the Hagadal daycare attachment program on caregiver sensitivity to infants were also investigated.

The present thesis includes four original studies. Papers I, II, and III describes prospective, longitudinal studies extending over a year, including a survey of the cortisol levels and development of cortisol circadian rhythm in three infant groups. Paper III also included an intervention component addressing the possible effects of the Hagadal daycare attachment program. Paper IV describes a case-control study designed to generate paired baseline-response data concerning the effects of oral glucose administration during nasopharyngeal suctioning as an interventional procedure.

Cortisol circadian rhythm in salivary cortisol secretion was similarly established at one month postnatal age in full-term infants and at one month corrected age in preterm infants, reflecting a process dependent on gestational age. This rhythm persisted throughout the first year of life in all infants and consolidated over time in healthy full-term and preterm infants, but not in infants at high psychosocial risk, who displayed higher variability in cortisol levels. The infants in paper IV had not yet reached one month of corrected age and therefore had not yet developed cortisol circadian rhythm at the time of the investigation. No correlation was found between development of cortisol circadian rhythm and either behavioral regularity or reported traumatic life events. This thesis presents data on salivary cortisol levels among three different groups of infants during the first year of life. Cortisol circadian rhythm among infants in study III evolved in response to parental participation in the Hagadal daycare attachment program, which increased caregiver sensitivity to infants. Study IV found that nasopharyngeal suctioning was not a sufficiently stressful stimulus to increase salivary cortisol or impact pain score. Oral glucose administration had no effect on salivary cortisol levels.

This thesis concludes that cortisol circadian rhythm is already established in infants by one month of age, earlier than previous studies have shown, and further that this process is dependent on gestational age. The Hagadal daycare attachment program enhances parental sensitivity toward children, which helps to stabilize development of cortisol circadian rhythm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 70 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1516
National Category
Pediatrics Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127498 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-127498 (DOI)978-91-7685-805-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-06-02, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved

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Ivars, KatrinNelson, NinaFinnström, OrvarMörelius, Evalotte

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