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Assessment and prediction of thoracic gas volume in pregnant women: an evaluation in relation to body composition assessment using air displacement plethysmography
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Nutrition. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2013 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, no 1, 111-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Assessment of body fat (BF) in pregnant women is important when investigating the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring health. Convenient and accurate body composition methods applicable during pregnancy are therefore needed. Air displacement plethysmography, as applied in Bod Pod, represents such a method since it can assess body volume (BV) which, in combination with body weight, can be used to calculate body density and body composition. However, BV must be corrected for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) of the subject. In non-pregnant women, TGV may be predicted using equations, based on height and age. It is unknown, however, whether these equations are valid during pregnancy. Thus, we measured the TGV of women in gestational week 32 (n 27) by means of plethysmography and predicted their TGV using equations established for non-pregnant women. Body weight and BV of the women was measured using Bod Pod. Predicted TGV was significantly (P = 0.033) higher than measured TGV by 6% on average. Calculations in hypothetical women showed that this overestimation tended to be more pronounced in women with small TGV than in women with large TGV. The overestimation of TGV resulted in a small but significant (P = 0.043) overestimation of BF, equivalent to only 0.5% BF, on average. A Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement were narrow (from -1.9 to 2.9% BF). Thus, although predicted TGV was biased and too high, the effect on BF was marginal and probably unimportant in many situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press (CUP) , 2013. Vol. 109, no 1, 111-117 p.
Keyword [en]
Air displacement plethysmography, Body composition, Pregnancy, Thoracic gas volume
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87956DOI: 10.1017/S0007114512000906ISI: 000312998200014OAI: diva2:601039

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|15402|FORMAS||Magnus Bergvall Foundation||Thuring Foundation||Swedish Society of Medicine||Medical Faculty, Linkoping University||County Council of Ostergotland||

Available from: 2013-01-28 Created: 2013-01-28 Last updated: 2015-04-27
In thesis
1. Body composition of parents and their infants: methodological, anthropometric, metabolic and genetic studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body composition of parents and their infants: methodological, anthropometric, metabolic and genetic studies
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Body composition in infancy may be of importance for later health. In particular, infant body composition may be relevant regarding obesity risk in childhood. Recent advances in body composition methodology using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) have provided possibilities to accurately measure body composition of infants in a quick and non-invasive manner. The aims of this thesis were to study associations of parental body composition using ADP, glucose homeostasis during pregnancy and infant genetics with infant body composition also using ADP. When using ADP in adults, a correction for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) is needed and TGV can be predicted using equations developed in nonpregnant adults. Thus another aim was to study the validity of using such equations during pregnancy.

Parent couples were invited to this study at a routine visit to a maternity clinic in Linköping between September 2008 and October 2010. When the mother was in gestational week 32, parental body composition using ADP and maternal glucose homeostasis variables were assessed. Size and body composition of healthy, singleton and full term (≥ 37 gestational weeks) infants were measured at 1 and 12 weeks of age and a total of 211 infants  were included in the studies. Weight and length at 1 year of age were reported by parents. Saliva samples were collected from the infants to obtain DNA for genotyping of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene.

Body composition results calculated using measured and predicted TGV were compared in 27 women. Results showed that predicted TGV yields a very marginal overestimation (0.5 %) of fat mass (FM). Further, each kg increase in maternal and paternal fat-free mass (FFM) was associated with 15.6 g (P=0.001) and 9.1 g (P=0.007), respectively, more FFM in their 1-week old infants. FM of fathers was not related to infant FM. However, maternal FM was positively associated with FM of daughters (5.8 g/kg, P=0.007), but not of sons (P=0.79) at 1 week of age. Similarly, each standard deviation increase in maternal HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance) was related to 52.7 more g of FM (P<0.001) in 1-weekold daughters, but no such relationship was found for sons (P=0.79). The number of risk alleles at the FTO locus rs9939609 was not associated with infant body mass index (BMI) or infant FM at 1 or 12 weeks of age. However, the number of risk alleles was positively associated (P≤0.033) with infant length at 1 and 12 weeks of age, and the results suggested that this association was stronger in boys than in girls.

The results presented in this thesis show that: i) The use of predicted TGV when applying ADP in gestational week 32 overestimated % FM only slightly. ii) Associations between parental and infant body composition are present early in life. Thus, parental FFM was positively related to FFM in 1-week-old infants. Furthermore, maternal FM and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were positively related to FM of 1-week-old daughters, but no such relationships were observed for sons. iii) The FTO genotype is not associated with infant body fatness at 1 or 12 weeks of age. However, the results suggested that the number of FTO risk alleles is positively associated with infant length, especially in boys.

In conclusion, parental and genetic factors were associated with infant size and body composition and these relationships may be of importance for future body composition and health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 67 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1456
National Category
Clinical Medicine Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117435 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-117435 (DOI)978-91-7519-094-5 (print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-02, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Swedish Research Council, 15402Swedish Research Council Formas, 222-2006-614, 222-2008-1332Magnus Bergvall FoundationSwedish Society of MedicineÖstergötland County Council
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved

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Henriksson, PontusLöf, MarieForsum, Elisabet
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