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District Heating in a Liberalized Energy Market: A New Order?: Planning and Development in the Stockholm Region, 1978-2012
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Fjärrvärme i en liberaliserad energimarknad: en ny ordning? : Planering och utveckling i Stockholmsregionen, 1978-2012 (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation analyses how district heating systems in the Stockholm region have evolved and developed during the period 1978-2012. The thesis comprises four papers analyzing how district heating has been handled in municipal and regional planning. The examination explores how actors have worked together to create regional, interconnected district heating systems with economic, technological and environmental benefits. An investigation is undertaken on the effects of liberalization (and the subsequent commercialization of the district heating market) on the planning and cooperation of these systems. The impact on the present and future district heating market is also discussed.

The dissertation shows that energy companies cooperated on a regional level to create interconnected regional systems. Through openness, the capacity to make high-level decisions and municipal legitimacy, the regional strategies could be implemented at the municipal level. This can be considered a form of regional planning from below that developed through the initiative of the municipalities. The regional energy planning authority Stoseb could therefore succeed where other regional planning authorities in the Stockholm region have previous failed, to gather and unite the municipalities into a regional force.

This cooperation changed around the time of the liberalization of the energy market in 1996, which led to sales of several municipal energy companies and a subsequent concentration of ownership in the region. The organizational distance between energy companies and municipalities has increased and affected the communication between them. Regional cooperation could not be maintained and this has meant that opportunities and tools to implement energy strategies today are weaker than earlier. This is a case of ‘regional splintering’. The liberalization of the energy market thus had a major impact on the district heating sector.

Abstract [sv]

Denna sammanläggningsavhandling analyserar hur fjärrvärmesystemen iStockholmsregionen vuxit och förändrats, mellan 1978 och 2012. Avhandlingen består av fyra artiklar som analyserar hur fjärrvärme hanterats i kommunal och regional planering, hur aktörer samarbetat för att skapa regionala, sammankopplade fjärrvärmesystem med ekonomiska, tekniska och miljömässiga vinster som följd, hur elavregleringen, och den påföljande kommersialiseringen av fjärrvärmemarknaden, påverkade planering och samverkan kring dessa system, samt fjärrvärmemarknadens nuläge och framtid.

Avhandlingen visar att energibolagen samarbetat på regional nivå för att skapa sammanhängande regionala system, genom öppet samarbete och att man tack vare hög beslutskompetens kunnat implementera de regionala strategierna på kommunal nivå. Det var en form av regional planering underifrån, då initiativet kom från kommunerna och samarbetsorganet lyckades med vad regionala planorgan haft svårt att genomföra under flertalet decennier i Stockholmsregion, nämligen att samla och ena kommunerna kring strategier som implementerats.

Detta samarbete förändrades vid tiden runt liberaliseringen av energimarknaden, som genomfördes 1996, vilket ledde till försäljning av flertalet kommunala energibolag och en efterföljande koncentration av ägandeskapet i regionen. Det organisatoriska avståndet mellan energibolag och kommun har därmed blivit längre och påverkat kommunikationen dem emellan. Det regionala samarbetet kunde därmed inte fortsätta som tidigare och detta gör att möjligheterna och verktyg att implementera regionala energistrategier idag är svaga. Detta var ett fall av ”regional splintering”. Liberaliseringen av energimarknaden hade således stor påverkan påfjärrvärmesektorn.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. , 104 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 576
Keyword [en]
District heating, energy, Stockholm region, municipal planning, regional planning, large technical systems, splintering urbanism, planning doctrines
Keyword [sv]
Fjärrvärme, energi, Stockholmsregionen, kommunal planering, regional planering, Large Technical Systems, Splintering Urbanism, Planeringsdoktriner
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88708ISBN: 978-91-7519-672-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-88708DiVA: diva2:605579
Public defence
2013-03-15, TEMCAS, Temahuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, LInköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-02-14 Created: 2013-02-14 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Between municipal and regional planning: The development of regional district heating systems in Stockholm from 1978 to 2010
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between municipal and regional planning: The development of regional district heating systems in Stockholm from 1978 to 2010
2011 (English)In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 16, no 4, 319-337 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

District heating (DH) is an important part of the Swedish energy system and one of the most important climate measures at the municipal level. The Swedish planning system gives a large amount of power to municipalities, thus leaving the regional level weak. Despite this, the DH systems in Stockholm have developed into regional systems; how has this development occurred and what made it possible? Regional and municipal strategies concerning DH and energy from 1978 to 2010 have been studied through Regional plans and comprehensive plans. The conclusions show that the municipal DH systems have grown and become interconnected, thus fulfilling one of the most important regional strategies: to expand and interconnect the systems to be able to build combined heat and power plants. This is not entirely due to the regional strategies, however; the local importance of the system, economic reasons and supply security are other explanations. The study shows that regional importance generally has grown, and thus also the regional focus on DH. As environmental and climate issues have risen on the agenda, the importance of DH from the municipal perspective has become more evident, as well as a shift from supply orientation to more focus on energy efficiency.

Keyword
district heating; Sweden; Stockholm; regional planning; comprehensive plans; energy planning
National Category
Human Geography Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72244 (URN)10.1080/13549839.2011.573472 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-11-23 Created: 2011-11-23 Last updated: 2017-12-08
2. Beyond the modern infrastructure ideal: A historical analysis of district heating expansion pre and post liberalization in Swedish municipalities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond the modern infrastructure ideal: A historical analysis of district heating expansion pre and post liberalization in Swedish municipalities
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The accessibility and affordability of infrastructure service after liberalization and deregulation are central to the splintering urbanism (SU) thesis. Liberalization and deregulation are not well studied in Swedish contexts, especially from a historical perspective. This article explores the applicability of the SU-concept modern infrastructure ideal in district heating (DH) expansion, using the concepts of cherry-picking and bypass, by historically analysing DH systems in Swedish municipalities. Using statistical and GIS analyses of digitized DH maps, I found that cherry-picking and bypassing strategies existed well before the liberalization of the Swedish energy market in 1996. This means that, though DH network access has never been universal, the effects have not been infrastructural ‘cold spots’, as the bypassed areas have other heating options. Traces of the modern infrastructure ideal are evident in Sweden, as public ownership and management, standardized and affordable service, and integrated comprehensive planning have been the guiding logics. The cherry-picking and bypass strategies arose for systemic and historical reasons, as high investment costs and heat loss per installed meter of the pipe network are important considerations, as is competition from other heating systems. There are signs of new business logics arising due to higher prices and the creation of premium network spaces.

Keyword
Splintering urbanism, modern infrastructure ideal, district heating, Sweden, Stockholm County
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88703 (URN)
Available from: 2013-02-14 Created: 2013-02-14 Last updated: 2013-02-14Bibliographically approved
3. Swedish district heating sector - A system in stagnation: Current and future trends in the district heating sector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish district heating sector - A system in stagnation: Current and future trends in the district heating sector
2012 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 48, 449-459 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper argues that Sweden’s old and established district heating sector is heading into a stagnation phase. The aim is to analyse the factors influencing this development as well as the strategies used by involved parties to prevent stagnation. Using large technical system theory, I analyse internal and external factors potentially causing stagnation. The most obvious external factors are: an increase in the number of energy-efficient buildings, in response to stricter energy policies, which reduces the future potential for district heating in new and existing buildings; climate change; competition from other heating systems; and market saturation in the key sector, multi-dwelling buildings. The main internal factor is changed business strategies following electricity market deregulation, when energy companies were supposed to be run on businesslike terms. I also argue that stagnation can be defined as occurring when the key measure feature of a system, in this case, heat load is starting to stagnate or decline, even though the trend is positive in other areas. The strategies for avoiding stagnation are various forms of broadening scope, primarily by focusing more on electricity production by building combined heat and power plants, or using the alternative value of the technical system for new applications.

Keyword
District heating; Combined heat and power; Large technical systems
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80139 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2012.05.047 (DOI)000309042100044 ()
Note

funding agencies|Swedish Energy Agency||

Available from: 2012-08-27 Created: 2012-08-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. The cure for the hard core: the evolution of planning doctrines and organizational unbundling in the Stockholm regional energy system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The cure for the hard core: the evolution of planning doctrines and organizational unbundling in the Stockholm regional energy system
2017 (English)In: International Planning Studies, ISSN 1356-3475, E-ISSN 1469-9265, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper analyses re-organization of district heating (DH) systems in the Stockholm region from the perspective of planning doctrines. It is argued that a regional doctrine emerged with the ‘spatial organization principle’ focusing on reducing the pressure on the city centre through suburbanization. The different infrastructure systems, especially transport systems, were an important part in implementing the doctrine, but as shown in the paper, energy systems and especially DH systems developed in accordance with the spatial organization principle were influenced by the doctrine. A regional energy company, STOSEB, was established, and from 1978 to 2003, it worked to create cooperation among the municipalities and energy companies. The doctrine was eventually weakened and modified, as the strategies of the organizational principle were actually implemented and focus shifted towards other issues. The regional energy cooperation was discontinued, as the deregulation of the electricity market led to privatization and new business logics of several energy companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keyword
Planning doctrines; Stockholm; energy
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88705 (URN)10.1080/13563475.2017.1339348 (DOI)
Note

The previous status of this article was Manuscript and the original title was Disintegration : The evolution of planning doctrines and organizational unbundling of a regional energy system.

Available from: 2013-02-14 Created: 2013-02-14 Last updated: 2017-08-31Bibliographically approved

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