Fit-for-duty test for estimation of drivers sleepiness level: Eye movements improve the sleep/wake predictor
2013 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, Vol. 26, 20-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Driver sleepiness contributes to a considerable proportion of road accidents, and a fit-for-duty test able to measure a drivers sleepiness level might improve traffic safety. The aim of this study was to develop a fit-for-duty test based on eye movement measurements and on the sleep/wake predictor model (SWP, which predicts the sleepiness level) and evaluate the ability to predict severe sleepiness during real road driving. Twenty-four drivers participated in an experimental study which took place partly in the laboratory, where the fit-for-duty data were acquired, and partly on the road, where the drivers sleepiness was assessed. A series of four measurements were conducted over a 24-h period during different stages of sleepiness. Two separate analyses were performed; a variance analysis and a feature selection followed by classification analysis. In the first analysis it was found that the SWP and several eye movement features involving anti-saccades, pro-saccades, smooth pursuit, pupillometry and fixation stability varied significantly with different stages of sleep deprivation. In the second analysis, a feature set was determined based on floating forward selection. The correlation coefficient between a linear combination of the acquired features and subjective sleepiness (Karolinska sleepiness scale, KSS) was found to be R = 0.73 and the correct classification rate of drivers who reached high levels of sleepiness (KSS andgt;= 8) in the subsequent driving session was 82.4% (sensitivity = 80.0%, specificity = 84.2% and AUC = 0.86). Future improvements of a fit-for-duty test should focus on how to account for individual differences and situational/contextual factors in the test, and whether it is possible to maintain high sensitive/specificity with a shorter test that can be used in a real-life environment, e.g. on professional drivers.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2013. Vol. 26, 20-32 p.
Fit-for-duty test, Eye movements, Driver sleepiness, Field study
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90685DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2012.07.008ISI: 000315421300002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-90685DiVA: diva2:614171
Funding Agencies|Swedish Transport Administration||VINNOVA, the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems||2013-04-032013-04-032013-06-16