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Mission Experience: How to Model and Capture it to Enable Vicarious Learning
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organizations for humanitarian assistance, disaster response and military activities are characterized by their special role in society to resolve time-constrained and potentially life-threatening situations. The tactical missions that these organizations conduct regularly are significantly dynamic in character, and sometimes impossible to fully comprehend and predict. In these situations, when control becomes opportunistic, the organizations are forced to rely on the collective experience of their personnel to respond effectively to the unfolding threats. Generating such experience through traditional means of training, exercising and apprenticeship, is expensive, time-consuming, and difficult to manage.

This thesis explores how and why mission experience should be utilized in emergency management and military organizations to improve performance. A multimedia approach for capturing mission experience has further been tested in two case studies to determine how the commanders’ experiences can be externalized to enable vicarious learning. These studies propose a set of technical, methodological, and ethical issues that need to be considered when externalizing mission experience, based on two aforementioned case studies complemented by a literature review. The presented outcomes are (1) a model aligning abilities that tactical organizations need when responding to dynamic situations of different familiarity, (2) a review of the usefulness of several different data sources for externalization of commanders’ experiences from tactical operations, and (3) a review of methodological, technical, and ethical issues to consider when externalizing tactical military and emergency management operations. The results presented in this thesis indicate that multimedia approaches for capturing mission histories can indeed complement training and exercising as a method for generating valuable experience from tactical missions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. , 72 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1582
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90727Local ID: LiU-Tek-Lic-2013:16ISBN: 978-91-7519-660-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-90727DiVA: diva2:614460
Presentation
2013-05-31, Alan Turing, Hus E, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

This work has been supported by the Swedish Defense Research Agency, the Swedish Armed Forces, the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (formerly the Swedish Rescue Services Agency and the Swedish Emergency Management Agency) and Forum Securitatis.

Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2015-08-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Sharing Mission Experience in Tactical Organisations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sharing Mission Experience in Tactical Organisations
2012 (English)In: ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings. Book of Papers. 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej and Zeno Franco, ISCRAM , 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A tactical organisation can be seen as an adhocracy designed to perform missions in uncertain, ambiguous and complex environments. Flexibility, adaptability, resilience, innovation, creativity and improvisation have all been identified as key skills for successful outcome of these missions. To learn skills associated with such abilities previous research has shown that knowledge acquired through experience plays an important role. It is therefore important that individuals, teams and organisations share and learn from experiences to improve their ability to cope with novel situations. In literature there is a lack of consistency in how these abilities are discussed, we therefore propose the FAIRIC model to help define and differentiate between the concepts. By unravelling some of the similarities and differences we create a common vocabulary to discuss knowledge gained from experience. This can help classify different experiences and provide a more systematic way of gathering knowledge on situational factors that influence the success of different actions and more unified interpretations that can assist design of knowledge representations to share mission experience over boundaries of time and space.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ISCRAM, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91985 (URN)978-0-86491-332-6 (ISBN)
Conference
The 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, April 22-25, Vancouver, Canada
Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-05-07 Last updated: 2013-05-07Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation of Crisis Management Operations using Reconstruction and Exploration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Crisis Management Operations using Reconstruction and Exploration
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference, Washington, DC: May 4-7 / [ed] Frank Fiedrich and Bartel Van de Walle, ISCRAM , 2008, 118-125 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present the Reconstruction and Exploration approach (R&E) and F-REX tool and their applications in a field exercise with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency with the purpose of investigating features needed for a computer supported approach for evaluation of large scale crisis management operations. After the exercise several interviews and one seminar were held to evaluate R&E as a representative for computer supported evaluation approaches for crisis management operations. Initial results indicate that multimedia presentation of key events from an operation can be very valuable not only to stimulate the participants to reflect on their own performance, but also to document and share lessons learned to non-participants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ISCRAM, 2008
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91986 (URN)978-0-615-20697-4 (ISBN)
Conference
ISCRAM2008 - Creating Advanced Systems for Inter-organizational Information Sharing and Collaboration, Washington, DC, USA, May 4-7, 2008
Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-05-07 Last updated: 2015-08-19Bibliographically approved
3. Reconstruction and Exploration of Large-scale Distributed Operations – Multimedia tools for Evaluation of Emergency Management Response
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconstruction and Exploration of Large-scale Distributed Operations – Multimedia tools for Evaluation of Emergency Management Response
2008 (English)In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 6, no 4, 31-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents an approach for computer-supported reconstruction and exploration (R&E) of distributed tactical operations. The approach involves several steps for constructing a time-synchronized, event-driven multimedia model of the course of events collected from multiple sources in the operational environment and visualizes this model in the F-REX Studio multimedia suite. In this study, the use of R&E and F-REX is explored in large-scale emergency management exercises. The approach’s possibilities, limitations, and needs for modification are first outlined followed by a comparison to traditional quantitative and qualitative data collection methods applied in the same context. It is found that the R&E approach in combination with F-REX has several advantages in relation to the other methods, in terms of avoiding problems of retrospection and in being able to provide an overview of the entire operation based on multiple perspectives—addressing the question “why” something happened rather than “what happened.” Correctly used, multimedia-supported R&E can thereby be used for more solid evaluations of large-scale emergency management exercises and operations, thus contributing to more effective handling of future crises. Keywords: reconstruction & exploration, distributed tactical operations, emergency management, evaluation, computer technology

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91987 (URN)
Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Privacy and Distributed Tactical Operations Evaluation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Privacy and Distributed Tactical Operations Evaluation
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, thoughts on ethics of workplace monitoring are being applied to the very special domain of evaluations of tactical operations, such as military or crisis management exercises or operations. I try to find out if there are differences in the way we should regard workplace monitoring when it comes to this domain compared to standard workplaces such as offices, since the purpose of the surveillance is not to enforce discipline, but to evaluate the organizations’ ability to conduct a tactical operation. The study focuses on issues such as privacy and informed consent and the main purpose of the investigation is to structure a consistent ethical standpoint when it comes to operations’ evaluation by making parallels to related theories that I found correct and applicable. I conclude that is indeed reasonable to place other demands on crisis management workers than we would do on other work forces, and that it should therefore be easier to motivate workplace monitoring for the purpose of evaluating distributed tactical operations. I argue however, just as Miller does regarding police work, that upholding privacy can be a real problem when crisis management personnel are exposed to monitoring, even though it is intended for evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CENTRIC, 2011
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91988 (URN)978-1-61208-167-0 (ISBN)
Conference
The Fourth International Conference on Advances in Human-oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies, and Services, CENTRIC 2011, October 23-29, 2011, Barcelona, Spain
Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-05-07 Last updated: 2013-05-07Bibliographically approved

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