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Novel architectures for flexible electrochemical devices and systems
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electrically conducting polymers were discovered in the late 1970s. This finding generated a whole new research area named organic electronics, an area which has attracted great interest and tremendous achievements, in terms of devices and applications, have been reached by different research groups all over the world. Replacing inorganic materials by their organic counterparts in various kinds of electronic devices provides novel device functionalities as well as new opportunities in device manufacturing. One of the major advantages of utilizing organic materials in electronic devices is the high degree of freedom regarding fabrication methods. Since organic materials can be processed from solution various printing, coating and lamination techniques can be used to manufacture entire electronic systems on flexible carriers and substrates in a truly reel-to-reel fashion.

The main theme of this thesis relates to exploring novel device architectures to enable easy manufacturing of flexible electrochromic displays based on organic materials. After the introduction, the second part of the thesis treats some of the fundamentals of conducting polymers, and the third part explains the building blocks of matrix-addressed electrochromic displays: those systems combine electrochemical transistors and electrochromic display pixels. A brief introduction to printed electronics is also given in the fourth section. Then, active matrix addressed displays utilizing electronic vias manufactured through the substrate, which enable to use the substrate more efficiently in the resulting three-dimensional architecture, are presented in the fifth section. This novel system arrangement results in a matrix-addressed display with a relatively high fill-factor since its subcomponents are located on opposite sides of the substrate. The sixth section of the thesis is related to the achievement of passive matrix addressed displays. The architecture and the manufacturing process of these electrochromic displays are both very simple: an electrolyte is sandwiched in between the counter and the pixel electrode layers. The electrode materials chosen results in a non-linear current versus voltage characteristics, which enables matrix addressability also without the transistors. At last, in the seventh section, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is used as the scaffold for either an electroactive polymer or the electrolyte. Various components, such as electrochromic pixels and electrochemical transistors, can be built from the resulting solid films thanks to the stable, soft and tacky properties of the hybridized NFC layer. Hence, a new concept for integration and reconfiguration of electronic systems consisting of electrochemical devices is achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. , 70 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1508
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91273ISBN: 978-91-7519-657-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-91273DiVA: diva2:616759
Public defence
2013-05-21, K1, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-08-22 Created: 2013-04-18 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Improving the color switch contrast in PEDOT:PSS-based electrochromic displays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the color switch contrast in PEDOT:PSS-based electrochromic displays
2012 (English)In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, no 3, 469-474 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) chemically doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) is a material system commonly used as a conductive and transparent coating in several important electronic applications. The material is also electrochemically active and exhibits electrochromic (EC) properties making it suitable as the active element in EC display applications. In this work uniformly coated PEDOT:PSS layers were used both as the pixel electrode and as the counter electrode in EC display components. The pixel and counter electrodes were separated by a whitish opaque and water-based polyelectrolyte and the thicknesses of the two EC layers were varied independently in order to optimize the color contrast of the display element. A color contrast (ΔE, CIE Lab color space) exceeding 40 was obtained with maintained relatively short switching time at an operational voltage less than 2 V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74723 (URN)10.1016/j.orgel.2011.12.007 (DOI)000300392100017 ()
Note
funding agencies|VINNOVA (research and innovation for sustainable growth in Sweden)||Available from: 2012-02-06 Created: 2012-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08
2. Flexible active matrix addressed displays manufactured by printing and coating techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible active matrix addressed displays manufactured by printing and coating techniques
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 51, no 4, 265-271 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A flexible electrochromic active matrix addressed display, including 8 × 8 pixels, is demonstrated by using solution processing based on standard printing and coating manufacturing techniques. Each organic electrochromic display (OECD) pixel and its corresponding organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) are located on different sides of the flexible PET substrate. Electronic vias generated through the plastic substrate connects each OECD pixel with one addressing OECT. When comparing this display with actively addressed OECDs with all its components located on the same side, the present approach based on this electronic via substrate provides an enhanced pixel resolution and a relatively more simplified manufacturing process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2013
Keyword
electrochromic, flexible electronics, matrix display, organic electronics, printed electronics
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88353 (URN)10.1002/polb.23213 (DOI)000313115500003 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Lintec Corporation||VINNOVA (Printed Electronics Arena)||KAW (Power Papers)||Onnesjo Foundation||

Available from: 2013-02-04 Created: 2013-02-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06
3. Fast-switching printed organic electrochemical transistors including electronic vias through plastic and paper substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast-switching printed organic electrochemical transistors including electronic vias through plastic and paper substrates
2013 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 60, no 6, 2052-2056 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel vertical architecture for all-printed organic electrochemical transistors, based on poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate), realized on flexible substrates, is reported. The transistors are manufactured along both faces of plastic or paper substrates and via connections are realized using laser ablation or simple punch through using a pin. Successful modulation of the electric current that flows between the two sides of the substrate is achieved using electrolyte-gating and electrochemical modulation of the electronic charge transport of the bulk of the transistor channel. In addition to this, the transistors are exhibiting fast switching and high ON/OFF current ratios.

Keyword
Electornical transisotors, Electronic vias, Flexible printed circuits, Organic semiconductors
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91268 (URN)10.1109/TED.2013.2258923 (DOI)000319355500038 ()
Available from: 2013-04-18 Created: 2013-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays
2013 (English)In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 12, 3371-3378 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible displays are attracting considerable attention as a visual interface for applications such as in electronic papers and paper electronics. Passive or active matrix-addressing of individual pixels require display elements that include proper signal addressability, which is typically provided by non-linear device characteristics or by incorporating transistors into each pixel, respectively. Including such additional devices into each pixel element make manufacturing of flexible displays using adequate printing techniques very hard or even impossible. Here, we report all-printed passive matrix-addressed electrochromic displays (PMAD) that can be manufactured using standard printing tools. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) serves as the conducting and electrochromic pixel electrodes and carbon paste is used as the pixel counter electrodes. These electrodes sandwich self-assembled layers of a polyelectrolyte that are confined to desired pixel areas via surface energy patterning. The particular choice of materials results in a desired current vs. voltage threshold that enables addressability in electronic cross-point matrices. The resulting PMAD, built up from a robust architecture including only few different materials, operates at less than 3 V, exhibits high color switch contrast without any cross-talk promises for high-volume and low-cost production of flexible displays using reel-to-reel printing tools on plastic foils and on paper.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91270 (URN)10.1016/j.orgel.2013.10.008 (DOI)000327146500031 ()
Note

Funding agencies|Lintec Corporation||

Available from: 2013-04-18 Created: 2013-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Reconfigurable sticker label electronics manufactured from nanofibrillated cellulose-based self-adhesive organic electronic materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconfigurable sticker label electronics manufactured from nanofibrillated cellulose-based self-adhesive organic electronic materials
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 11, 3061-3069 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low voltage operated electrochemical devices can be produced from electrically conducting polymers and polyelectrolytes. Here, we report how such polymers and polyelectrolytes can be cast together with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) derived from wood. The resulting films, which carry ionic or electronic functionalities, are all-organic, disposable, light-weight, flexible, self-adhesive, elastic and self-supporting. The mechanical and self-adhesive properties of the films enable simple and flexible electronic systems by assembling the films into various kinds of components using a "cut and stick" method. Additionally, the self-adhesive surfaces provide a new concept that not only allows for simplified system integration of printed electronic components, but also allows for a unique possibility to detach and reconfigure one or several subcomponents by a "peel and stick" method to create yet another device configuration. This is demonstrated by a stack of two films that first served as the electrolyte layer and the pixel electrode of an electrochromic display, which then was detached from each other and transferred to another configuration, thus becoming the electrolyte and gate electrode of an electrochemical transistor. Further, smart pixels, consisting of the combination of one electrochromic pixel and one electrochemical transistor, have successfully been manufactured with the NFC-hybridized materials. The concept of system reconfiguration was further explored by that a pixel electrode charged to its colored state could be detached and then integrated on top of a transistor channel. This resulted in spontaneous discharging and associated current modulation of the transistor channel without applying any additional gate voltage. Our peel and stick approach promises for novel reconfigurable electronic devices, e. g. in sensor, label and security applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Cellulose nanofiber, electrochromic display, electrochemical transistor, selfadhesion, electronic system integration
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91271 (URN)10.1016/j.orgel.2013.07.013 (DOI)000325487000049 ()
Available from: 2013-08-22 Created: 2013-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Kawahara, Jun

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