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Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8862-7331
Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH. Stockholm, Sweden.
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 8, no 1, 78-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Managing complexity and uncertainty in high risk, socio-technical, systems requires people to continuously adapt. Designing resilient systems that support adaptive behaviour requires a deepened understanding of the context in which the adaptations take place, enablers for successful adaptations and their affect the overall system. Also, it requires a focus on how people actually perform, not how they are presumed to perform according to textbook situations. We propose a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday situations where systems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie the framework are derived from nine focus groups with representatives working with safety related issues in different work domains, including health care, nuclear, transportation and emergency services. Further, the variety space diagram is developed as a means to illustrate how system variability, disturbances and constraints affect work performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014. Vol. 8, no 1, 78-97 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91989DOI: 10.1177/1555343413498753Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84893856937OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-91989DiVA: diva2:619907
Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Resilience in High Risk Work: Analysing Adaptive Performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience in High Risk Work: Analysing Adaptive Performance
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In today’s complexsocio-technical systems it is not possible to foresee and prepare for allfuture events. To cope with the intricacy and coupling between people,technical systems and the dynamic environment people are required tocontinuously adapt. To design resilient systems a deepened understanding ofwhat supports and enables adaptive performance is needed. In this thesis two studiesare presented that investigate how adaptive abilities can be identified andanalysed in complex work settings across domains. The studies focus onunderstanding adaptive performance, what enables successful adaptation and how contextual factors affect the performance. The first study examines how acrisis command team adapts as they lose important functions of their teamduring a response operation.  The secondstudy presents a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday work wheresystems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie theframework are based on findings from focus group discussion withrepresentatives from different organisations, including health care, nuclear,transportation and emergency services. Main contributions of this thesis includethe examination of adaptive performance and of how it can be analysed as ameans to learn about and strengthen resilience. By using contextual analysis enablersof adaptive performance and its effects the overall system are identified. Theanalysis further demonstrates that resilience is not a system property but aresult of situational circumstances and organisational structures. Theframework supports practitioners and researchers in reporting findings,structuring cases and making sense of sharp-end adaptations. The analysismethod can be used to better understand system adaptive capacities, monitoradaptive patterns and enhance current methods for safety management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. 51 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1589
Keyword
Resilience Engineering, Safety Management, Adaptive Capacity, Improvisation
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90726 (URN)LiU-Tek-Lic-2013:23 (Local ID)978-91-7519-634-3 (ISBN)LiU-Tek-Lic-2013:23 (Archive number)LiU-Tek-Lic-2013:23 (OAI)
Presentation
2013-05-24, Alan Turing, Hus E, Campus Valla, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2013-05-07Bibliographically approved
2. Making Sense of Adaptations: Resilience in High-Risk Work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making Sense of Adaptations: Resilience in High-Risk Work
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To cope with variations, disturbances, and unexpected events in complex socio-technical systems people are required to continuously adapt to the changing environment, sometimes in novel and innovative ways. This thesis investigates adaptive performance in complex work settings across domains, with a focus on examining what enables and disables successful adaptations, and how contextual factors shape performance. Examples of adaptive performance studies include a crisis command team dealing with the loss of key personnel, a crew coping with unreliable system feedback in the cockpit, and a nursing team managing an overload of patients. The two main contributions of this thesis is the analysis of cases of people coping with variations and disturbances, and the development of conceptual models to report findings, structure cases, and make sense of sharp-end adaptations in complex work settings. The findings emphasise that adaptive performance outside procedures and textbook scenarios at the sharp end is a critical ability to cope with variation and unexpected events. However, the results also show that adaptations may come at the cost of new vulnerabilities and system brittleness. Analysing adaptive performance in everyday events informs safety management by making visible limitations and possibilities of system design, organisational structures, procedures, and training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1823
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133072 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-133850 (DOI)978-91-7685-596-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-02-17, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2017-01-18Bibliographically approved

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