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Evaluation, Transformation, and Extraction of Driving Cycles and Vehicle Operations
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A driving cycle is a representation of how vehicles are driven and  is usually represented by a set of data points of vehicle speed  versus time.  Driving cycles have been used to evaluate vehicles for  a long time. A traditional usage of driving cycles have been in  certification test procedures where the exhaust gas emissions from  the vehicles need to comply with legislation. Driving cycles are now  also used in product development for example to size components or  to evaluate different technologies.  Driving cycles can be just a  repetition of measured data, be synthetically designed from  engineering standpoints, be a statistically equivalent  transformation of either of the two previous, or be obtained as an  inverse problem e.g. obtaining driving/operation patterns.  New  methods that generate driving cycles and extract typical behavior  from large amounts of operational data have recently been proposed.  Other methods can be used for comparison of driving cycles, or to  get realistic operations from measured data. 

This work addresses evaluation, transformation and extraction of  driving cycles and vehicle operations.  To be able to test a vehicle  in a controlled environment, a chassis dynamometer is an  option. When the vehicle is mounted, the chassis dynamometer  simulates the road forces that the vehicle would experience if it  would be driven on a real road. A moving base simulator is a  well-established technique to evaluate driver perception of e.g. the  powertrain in a vehicle, and by connecting these two simulators the  fidelity can be enhanced in the moving base simulator and at the  same time the mounted vehicle in the chassis dynamometer is  experiencing more realistic loads. This is due to the driver's  perception in the moving base simulator is close to reality. 

If only a driving cycle is considered in the optimization of a  controller there is a risk that the controllers of vehicles are  tailored to perform well in that specific driving cycle and not  during real-world driving. To avoid the sub-optimization issues, the  operating regions of the engine need to be excited differently. This  can be attained by using a novel algorithm, which is proposed in  this thesis, that alters the driving cycle while maintaining that  the driving cycle tests vehicles in a similar way. This is achieved  by keeping the mean tractive force constant during the process. 

From a manufacturers standpoint it is vital to understand how your  vehicles are being used by the customers. Knowledge about the usage  can be used for design of driving cycles, component sizing and  configuration, during the product development process, and in  control algorithms.  To get a clearer picture of the usage of wheel  loaders, a novel algorithm that automatically, using existing  sensors only, extracts information of the customers usage, is  suggested. The approach is found to be robust when evaluated on  measured data from wheel loaders loading gravel and shot rock.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. , 103 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1596
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92180Local ID: LIU-TEK-LIC-2013:30ISBN: 978-91-7519-597-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-92180DiVA: diva2:620310
Presentation
2013-05-30, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2013-05-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A New Chassis Dynamometer Laboratory for Vehicle Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Chassis Dynamometer Laboratory for Vehicle Research
2013 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, E-ISSN 1946-4622, Vol. 6, no 1, 152-161 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years the need for testing, calibration and certification of automotive components and powertrains have increased, partly due to the development of new hybrid concepts. At the same time, the development within electrical drives enables more versatile chassis dynamometer setups with better accuracy at a reduced cost. We are developing a new chassis dynamometer laboratory for vehicle research, aiming at extending a recently commercially available dynamometer, building a new laboratory around it, and applying the resulting facility to some new challenging vehicle research problems. The projects are enabled on one hand by collaboration with the dynamometer manufacturer, and on the other hand on collaboration with automotive industry allowing access to relevant internal information and equipment. The test modes of the chassis dynamometer are under development in a joint collaboration with the manufacturer. The laboratory has been operational since September 2011 and has already been used for NVH-analysis for a tire pressure indication application, chassis dynamometer road force co-simulation with a moving base simulator, co-surge modeling and control for a 6-cylinder bi-turbo engine, and traditional engine mapping. We are also looking at projects with focus on look-ahead control, as well as clutch and transmission modeling and control, and driving cycle related research.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92212 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-0402 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
2013 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, E-ISSN 1946-4622, Vol. 6, no 1, 169-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To evaluate driver perception of a vehicle powertrain a moving base simulator is a well-established technique. We are connecting the moving base simulator Sim III, at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute with a newly built chassis dynamometer at Vehicular Systems, Linköping University. The purpose of the effort is to enhance fidelity of moving base simulators by letting drivers experience an actual powertrain. At the same time technicians are given a new tool for evaluating powertrain solutions in a controlled environment. As a first step the vehicle model from the chassis dynamometer system has been implemented in Sim III. Interfacing software was developed and an optical fiber covering the physical distance of 500 m between the facilities is used to connect the systems. Further, a pedal robot has been developed that uses two linear actuators pressing the accelerator and brake pedals. The pedal robot uses feedback loops on accelerator position or brake cylinder pressure and is controlled via an UDP interface. Results from running the complete setup showed expected functionality and we are successful in performing a driving mission based on real road topography data. Vehicle acceleration and general driving feel was perceived as realistic by the test subjects while braking still needs improvements. The pedal robot construction enables use of a large set of cars available on the market and except for mounting the brake pressure sensor the time to switch vehicle is approximately 30 minutes.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92215 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-0410 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Driving Cycle Adaption and Design Based on Mean Tractive Force
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving Cycle Adaption and Design Based on Mean Tractive Force
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driving cycles are used for certification, for comparison of vehicles, and to an increasing extent as an engineering tool in vehicle design. A situation with only a few fixed driving cycles to use would then lead to the risk that a test or design would be tailored to details in the driving cycle instead of being representative. Due to this, and due to the increased use in the development process, there is now a strong need for methods to achieve representative driving cycles that in a wide sense are similar but not the same. To approa ch this problem area, we define equivalence between driving cycles based on mean tractive force, and develop algorithms and methods for equivalence-modification and equivalence-transformation of driving cycles. There are a number of applications for these methods but one example that is demonstrated is to transform the well-known FTP75 into an equivalent NEDC, and the other way around, to transform the NEDC into an equivalent FTP75.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92218 (URN)
Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2013-05-08Bibliographically approved
4. Robust Driving Pattern Detection and Identification with a Wheel Loader Application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robust Driving Pattern Detection and Identification with a Wheel Loader Application
Show others...
2014 (English)In: International journal of vehicle systems modelling and testing, ISSN 1745-6436, Vol. 9, no 1, 56-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Information about wheel loader usage can be used in several ways to optimize customer adaption. First, optimizing the configuration and component sizing of a wheel loader to customer needs can lead to a significant improvement in e.g. fuel efficiency and cost. Second, relevant driving cycles to be used in the development of wheel loaders can be extracted from usage data. Third, on-line usage identification opens up for the possibility of implementing advanced look-ahead control strategies for wheel loader operation. The main objective here is to develop an on-line algorithm that automatically, using production sensors only, can extract information about the usage of a machine. Two main challenges are that sensors are not located with respect to this task and that significant usage disturbances typically occur during operation. The proposed method is based on a combination of several individually simple techniques using signal processing, state automaton techniques, and parameter estimation algorithms. The approach is found to berobust when evaluated on measured data of wheel loaders loading gravel and shot rock.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2014
Keyword
Driving cycle; Driving cycle identification; Driving pattern; Pattern identification; Robust detection; State automaton; Usage classification; Usage detection; Wheel loader
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92222 (URN)10.1504/IJVSMT.2014.059156 (DOI)2-s2.0-84893958574 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2015-04-01Bibliographically approved

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Nyberg, Peter

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