Can Simulations Assist in Classification Development?
2013 (English)In: Equipment and Technology in Paralympic Sports, International Paralympic Committee , 2013Conference paper, Abstract (Other academic)
There is a critical need for research that describes the extent to which impairments of varying type, severity and distribution impact performance in Paralympic sports. It is important with evidence-based judgment on how the impairments aect performance. In the following, we present a complementary evidence-based tool for classication.
Let us start with an example. We recently presented a study (Holmberg et al., 2012)1 that utilized two full-body musculoskeletal simulation models of cross-country skiing (double-poling). The models were identical except that one carried no muscles in the right lower leg and foot; thus mimicking a lower leg prosthesis. It was hypothesized that a lower leg prosthesis would inuence muscular work throughout the whole body. Results showed that to generate the same motion and external work, an able-bodied skier only had to produce about 80% metabolic muscle work compared to a disabled skier (with a non-active right lower leg prosthesis).
In reality there is always psychological factors present and it is probably not possible to nd two human beings (one fully functional and one impaired) with the same tness, size, strength and technique. Thus, it is hard to nd the unbiased eect of an impairment on performance in a speci c sport. The example above shows the strength of using simulations because a musculoskeletal model yields quantitative data on the unbiased eect of dierent functional impairments.
In cross-country skiing, athletes with functional impairments are, in 'competition format' classification, assigned to dierent categories with weight factors. Athletes perform their race and the result list is presented as race time multiplied by weight factor. In the future, musculoskeletal simulations may assist in answering how a specic functional impairment aects performance and thereby improve the fairness in assigning weight factors for classication.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Paralympic Committee , 2013.
Cross-country skiing, Musculoskeletal biomechanics
Sport and Fitness Sciences Applied Mechanics Medical Materials
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92577OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-92577DiVA: diva2:621028
VISTA2013 Scientific Conference, Gustav-Stresemann-Institut, Bonn, 1-4 May 2013