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Traffic Simulation Modelling of Rural Roads and Driver Assistance Systems
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Trafiksystem)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9635-5233
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Microscopic traffic simulation has proven to be a useful tool for analysis of varioustraffic systems. This thesis consider microscopic traffic simulation of rural roads andthe use of traffic simulation for evaluation of driver assistance systems.

A traffic simulation modelling framework for rural roads, the Rural Traffic Simulator(RuTSim), is developed. RuTSim is designed for simulation of traffic on singlecarriageway two-lane rural roads and on rural roads with separated oncoming trafficlanes. The simulated traffic may be interrupted by vehicles entering and leaving themodelled road at intersections or roundabouts.

The RuTSim model is applied for analysis of rural road design alternatives.Quality-of-service effects of three alternatives for oncoming lane separation of anexisting Swedish two-lane road are analysed. In another model application, RuTSimis used to simulate traffic on a Dutch two-lane rural road. This application illustratesthat the high level of model detail of traffic micro-simulation may call for use of differentmodelling assumptions regarding driver behaviour for different applications,e. g. for simulation of traffic in different cultural regions.

The use of traffic simulation for studies of driver assistance systems facilitateimpact analyses already at early stages of the system development. New and additionalrequirements are however then placed on the traffic simulation model. It isnecessary to model both the system functionality of the considered driver assistancesystem and the driver behaviour in system equipped vehicles. Such requirements canbe analysed using RuTSim.

In this thesis, requirements on a traffic simulation model to be used for analysisof road safety effects of driver assistance systems are formulated and investigatedusing RuTSim. RuTSim is also applied for analyses of centre line rumble stripson two-lane roads, of an overtaking assistant and of adaptive cruise control. Thesestudies establish that the assumptions made regarding driver behaviour are crucialfor traffic simulation based analyses of driver assistance systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Norrköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2008. , 33 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1211
Keyword [en]
Microscopic traffic simulation, Rural Traffic Simulator(RuTSim)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12428ISBN: 978-91-7393-806-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-12428DiVA: diva2:63
Public defence
2008-10-03, TP1, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-09-25 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2014-11-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Versatile Model for Simulation of Rural Road Traffic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Versatile Model for Simulation of Rural Road Traffic
2005 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1934, 169-178 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In many countries the road mileage is dominated by rural highways.For that reason it is important to have access to efficienttools for evaluation of the performance of such roads. For otherroad types, e. g., freeways and urban street networks, a wealth ofmicro-simulation models is available. However, only a few modelsdedicated to rural roads have been developed. None of thesemodels handles traffic flows interrupted by intersections or roundabouts,nor are the models capable of describing the traffic flow onrural roads with a cable barrier between oncoming lanes. Theseare major drawbacks when Swedish roads, on which cable barriersand roundabouts are becoming increasingly important, aremodeled. Moreover, as new areas of application for rural roadsimulation arise, a flexible and detailed model is needed. Suchapplications include, among other things, simulation of driver assistancesystems and estimation of pollutant emissions. This paperintroduces a versatile traffic micro-simulation model for the ruralroads of today and of the future. The model system presented,the Rural Traffic Simulator (RuTSim), is capable of handling allcommon types of rural roads, including the effects of roundaboutsand intersections on the traffic on the main road. The purpose ofthe paper is to describe the simulation approach and the trafficmodeling used in RuTSim. A verification of the RuTSim model isalso included. RuTSim is found to produce outputs representativeof all common types of rural roads in Sweden.

Keyword
Intersections; Microsimulation; Roundabouts; Rural highways; Traffic flow; Traffic models; Traffic simulation; Sweden; Cable barriers
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12420 (URN)10.3141/1934-18 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service, Tokyo: JSTE , 2006, 249-258 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, rural roads with separated oncoming lanes are becomingincreasingly important due to their superior safety properties.The level-of-service of such roads may however be reducedsince traffic is restricted by the barrier between the oncoming lanes.This level-of-service impact can be evaluated through traffic microsimulation.Such simulation based assessments of rural highwaysrequire simulation models capable of modeling rural road traffic.This paper presents a simulation study of different rural road designswith separated oncoming lanes using a rural road traffic simulationmodel. The presentation illustrates the use of simulationfor rural highways and the result of the study indicates that oncominglane separation is a competitive alternative despite slightlevel-of-service reductions compared to undivided two-lane highways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo: JSTE, 2006
Keyword
Highway design ; Level of service ; Microsimulation ; Rural highways ; Traffic simulation ; Two lane highways
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12425 (URN)4-905990-61-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2014-11-28Bibliographically approved
3. On the Application of Traffic Micro-Simulation To Road Environments in Different Regions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Application of Traffic Micro-Simulation To Road Environments in Different Regions
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C. : Transportation Research Board , 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

New areas of application of traffic micro-simulation models arecurrently being explored. Examples include analysis of IntelligentTransportation Systems, safety assessments and vehicle emissionsstudies. Many of these new applications depend on reliable andrepresentative simulated vehicle trajectories. The traffic simulationmodels used for these applications must therefore modeldriver/vehicle behavior with greater detail than what is necessaryfor traditional traffic engineering applications. In this paper,we argue that this increased model complexity may reducethe applicability of the models to other situations with differentdriver/vehicle behavior. Such situations include simulation of trafficin different countries or regions as well as simulation of roadenvironments with different properties. The objective of the paperis to bring focus to modeling considerations that are important fortoday’s increasingly detailed traffic micro-simulation applications.Model application to traffic in different regions is exemplified by acase study in which the Rural Traffic Simulator developed in Swedenis applied to simulation of traffic on a Dutch two-lane highway.Simulation of traffic in different regions and new model applicationsis to a certain extent facilitated by the model calibrationand validation. The high level of detail of micro-simulation modelsmay however require use of different modeling assumptions for different applications. Advances in vehicle trajectory measurementtechniques will allow developments of more detailed traffic microsimulationmodels. It is therefore increasingly important that themodels are estimated and cross-validated using data sets that arecollected in the regions and traffic conditions that the models aredeveloped for.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington D.C. : Transportation Research Board, 2008
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12426 (URN)
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2014-11-28Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation
2006 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1953, 81-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Road safety is a major concern in all countries, and large effortsare constantly dedicated to create safer traffic environments. Todayincreasing attention is turned toward active safety improvingcountermeasures that improve road safety by reducing accidentrisks. Such active countermeasures include advanced driver assistancesystems (ADAS). To ensure that these new applicationsresult in real safety improvements, a priori estimations of safetyeffects are needed. This paper considers estimation of the safetyeffects of ADAS through traffic simulation. Requirements imposedon a traffic simulation model to be used for ADAS evaluation arepresented, and a car-following model to be used in simulations thatinclude ADAS-equipped vehicles is proposed. ADAS have an impacton traffic through the functionalities of ADAS and throughchanges in driver behavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles. Driverbehavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles has usually not been consideredin previous simulation studies, including those for ADASequippedvehicles. Simulation runs of rural road traffic that usedthe proposed car-following model did, however, indicate that behavioralchanges caused by the ADAS were important factors forthe safety impact. Modeling of the behavior of drivers in ADASequippedvehicles is therefore essential for reliable conclusions onthe road safety effects of ADAS.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12422 (URN)10.3141/1953-10 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation
2008 (English)In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 14, 69-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The interest in in-vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems(ADAS) is increasing. New systems such as Adaptive Cruise Controlsand Collision Avoidance Systems are currently introduced ata rapid pace. ADAS can both substitute and complement traditionalinfrastructure based safety improving countermeasures. Toexploit the full potential of these systems, it is necessary to estimatethe systems future impact already at early developmentstages. This paper presents a traffic simulation framework foranalysis of the aggregation of individual driver/vehicle behaviourdue to ADAS to effects on the traffic system. Application of thesimulation framework is exemplified by a study of centre line rumblestrips on rural roads. The effects of physical milled rumblestrips are compared to the effects of “virtual” in-vehicle rumblestrips for both alert and sleep deprived drivers. The use of trafficsimulation made it possible to study the combined impact ofchanges in drivers’ free driving speed, reaction time and overtakingbehaviour. Indications that the different rumble strips have animpact on average journey speeds were found amongst the simulationresults. Changes in safety indicators that can be related tochanges in overtaking behaviour were also observed.

Keyword
traffic simulation, system effects, ADAS, rumble strip
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12421 (URN)
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2014-11-28Bibliographically approved
6. Overtaking Assistant Assessment Using Traffic Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overtaking Assistant Assessment Using Traffic Simulation
2009 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 17, no 6, 617-630 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulationstudy of the potential effects of an overtaking assistant fortwo-lane rural roads. The overtaking assistant is developed to supportdrivers in judging whether or not an overtaking opportunitycan be accepted based on the distance to the next oncoming vehicle.Drivers have been found to consider this to be a difficultpart of an overtaking manoeuvre. The assistant’s effects on trafficefficiency, driver comfort and road safety have been investigatedusing traffic simulation. The results indicate that this type overtakingassistant can provide safety benefits in terms of increasedtime-to-collision to the next oncoming vehicle during overtakingmanoeuvres. This safety benefit can be achieved without negativeconsequences for traffic efficiency and driver comfort. A driverassistance system that supports the distance judging part of overtakingmanoeuvres can therefore contribute to improved trafficconditions on the two-lane rural roads of the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2009
Keyword
Delay; Microscopic traffic simulation; Overtaking assistant; Overtaking frequency; Rural road; TTC
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12424 (URN)000270610700006 ()
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
7. Vehicle Trajectory Impacts of Adaptive Cruise Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle Trajectory Impacts of Adaptive Cruise Control
2012 (English)In: Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems / Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1547-2450, E-ISSN 1547-2442, Vol. 16, no 1, 36-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is assumed to have a potentialto improve quality-of-service and safety and to reduce the environmentalimpact of the road traffic system. This paper use vehicletrajectories from traffic simulation to study impacts of ACCon vehicle acceleration and deceleration rates. The analysis isbased on traffic simulations with car-following models includingACC functionality and driver behaviour in ACC-equipped as wellas standard non-equipped vehicles. The simulation results showthat ACC can improve the traffic situation in terms of reduced accelerationand deceleration rates even though macroscopic trafficproperties may remain uninfluenced. This supports the hypothesisedpositive road safety and environmental effects of ACC. It isalso established that the results are largely dependent on the assumptionsmade regarding driver behaviour in ACC-equipped andstandard vehicles. It is consequently crucial to include appropriateassumptions regarding driver behaviour in traffic simulation basedanalyses of ACC.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12419 (URN)10.1080/15472450.2012.639641 (DOI)000302055100004 ()
Note
funding agencies|Swedish Road Administration through the Swedish network of excellence Transport Telematics Sweden||Linkoping University||Available from: 2008-09-25 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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