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Urea Assisted Synthesis of Flower Like CuO Nanostructures and Their Chemical Sensing Application for the Determination of Cadmium Ions
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6235-7038
2013 (English)In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 25, no 6, 1425-1432 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The novel nanostructures of CuO with improved morphology are strongly required for the development of devices with enhanced performance. In this study flower like nanostructures of CuO are synthesized by hydrothermal method using urea as tuning material for the morphology of CuO during the growth process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the characterization of these nanostructures. The nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and well aligned on the gold coated glass substrate. Moreover, CuO nanostructures exhibited pure phase of CuO. These novel CuO nanostructures were potentially used for the construction of cadmium ion sensor by functionalizing with tetrathia-12-crown-4 a selective cadmium ion ionophore. The proposed cadmium ion sensor has detected the wide range of cadmium ion concentrations from 1.0x10-9-1.0x10-1M with a sensitivity of 29.3 +/- 0.3mV/decade and also a fast response time of less than 10.0s is demonstrated. CuO nanostructures based cadmium ion selective electrode has also shown excellent reproducibility, repeatability, selectivity, and stability. The sensor electrode was also used as indicator electrode for the confirmation of practical utility and the obtained result describes the good behavior of the sensor in the potentiometric titration for the determination of cadmium ions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlag , 2013. Vol. 25, no 6, 1425-1432 p.
Keyword [en]
Urea; Flower like morphology of CuO; Potentiometric response; Cadmium ions; Output response; Nanostructures
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96119DOI: 10.1002/elan.201200660ISI: 000320193100013OAI: diva2:640773
Available from: 2013-08-14 Created: 2013-08-14 Last updated: 2014-12-18
In thesis
1. Synthesising Metal Oxide Materials and Their Composite Nanostructures for Sensing and Optoelectronic Device Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesising Metal Oxide Materials and Their Composite Nanostructures for Sensing and Optoelectronic Device Applications
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research on nanomaterials has been revolutionized in the last few years because of the attractive properties they have in comparison to the bulk phase of similar materials. These properties are physical, chemical, catalytic and optical. Among these nanomaterials, the metal oxide nanostructures have become of particular interest to scientists for the development of different optical, biochemical and biomedical nanodevices. In the present research work using the advantageous features of nanotechnology, high performance nanodevices for optoelectronics with a wide band gap compound nanostructure and highly sensitive sensor devices have been demonstrated. The nanotechnology is used to fabricate sensitive and precise nanodevices based on nanomaterials for the application of sensing.

Among metal oxide nanostructures, ZnO, CuO and NiO are attractive materials because of their unique properties; their high surface area to volume ratio, their energy band gap of 3.37 eV, 1.2 eV and 3.7 eV, respectively, biocompatibility, high electron mobility, fast electron transfer rate and they are environmental-friendly in many applications. When used in sensor devices, nanomaterials have indicated high selectivity for possible use to detect the various analytes even in small volumes. Metal oxide nanostructures have shown to be good for optoelectronic nanodevices because of their electrical characteristics, high optical absorption and low-processing temperature.

In this thesis, the synthesis of different morphologies of metal oxide semiconductor nanostructures and their composite using the hydrothermal method are demonstrated for various applications. This thesis is divided into three parts:

In the first part of this research work, the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods using different concentrations of composite seed layer of inorganic and organic materials when using the hydrothermal growth method is presented. The effect of the composite seed layer on the alignment, density and optical properties of the grown ZnO nanorods is investigated (paper I). Utilizing the advantage of ZnO nanostructure, a comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing application was carried out. The ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalized with strontium ionophore membrane, immobilized the galactose oxidase and lactate oxidase for determining the strontium ions, D-galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively (paper II).

In the second part, the effects of different urea concentrations on the morphology of CuO nanostructures is studied as described in paper III. Moreover, CuO nanoflowers were functionalized with cadmium ion ionophore for the detection of Cd ions, while CuO nanosheets were grown by the low temperature growth method and were used for the development of a nonenzymatic glucose sensor, respectively (Paper IV).

In the last part of this thesis, composite nanostructures of CuO/ZnO and NiO/ZnO were applied to develop dopamine sensor and fast sensitive UV photodetector, respectively. A nanohybrid of CuO/ZnO nanostructure was used as a non-enzymatic electrode to detect dopamine by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric techniques (Paper V). In paper VI, we have demonstrated a strong UV absorption from ZnO nano-sheets achieved by the supramoleculesassisted growth solution using the hydrothermal method. The synthesized nanomaterial was used in the fabrication of UV photodetector based on p-NiO/ n-ZnO heterostructures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 56 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1628
Hydrothermal method; metal oxide nanostructure; composite seed solution; wellaligned ZnO nanorods; composite structures; glucose and dopamine non-enzymatic sensors; heavy metals; supramolecular; UV photodetector sensor
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112865 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-112865 (DOI)978-91-7519-207-9 (print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-01-19, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Available from: 2014-12-18 Created: 2014-12-18 Last updated: 2015-01-14Bibliographically approved

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Hussain Ibupoto, ZafarWillander, Magnus
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