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Early number knowledge and cognitive ability affect early arithmetic ability
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2013 (English)In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 115, no 3, 405-421 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous literature suggests that early number knowledge is important for the development of arithmetic calculation ability. The domain-general ability of verbal working memory also has an impact on arithmetic ability. This longitudinal study tested the impact of early number knowledge and verbal working memory on the arithmetic calculation ability of children in preschool (N = 315) and then later in Grade 1 using structural equation modeling. Three models were used to test hypotheses drawn from previous literature. The current study demonstrates that both early number knowledge and the domain-general ability of verbal working memory affect preschool and Grade 1 arithmetic ability. Early number knowledge had a direct impact on the growth of arithmetic ability, whereas verbal working memory had only an indirect effect via number knowledge and preschool arithmetic ability. These results fit well with von Aster and Shalevs developmental model of numerical cognition (Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 2007, Vol. 49, pp. 868-873) and highlight the importance of considering arithmetic ability as independent from early number knowledge. Results also emphasize the importance of training early number knowledge before school entry to promote the development of arithmetic ability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2013. Vol. 115, no 3, 405-421 p.
Keyword [en]
Early number knowledge; Mental number line; Numerical knowledge; Arithmetic calculation; Verbal working memory; Arithmetic development
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96454DOI: 10.1016/j.jecp.2013.03.007ISI: 000320740400002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-96454DiVA: diva2:642942
Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06
In thesis
1. Mathematical Learning Disability: Cognitive Conditions, Development and Predictions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mathematical Learning Disability: Cognitive Conditions, Development and Predictions
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Matematiska inlärningssvårigheter : Kognitiva förutsättningar, utveckling och prediktioner
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the present thesis was to test and contrast hypotheses about the cognitive conditions that support the development of mathematical learning disability (MLD). Following hypotheses were tested in the thesis: a) domain general deficit, the deficit is primarily located in the domain general systems such as the working memory, b) number sense deficit, the deficit is located in the innate approximate number system (ANS), c) numerosity coding deficit, the deficit is located to a exact number representation system, d) access deficit, the deficit is in the mapping between symbols and the innate number representational system (e.g., ANS), e) multiple deficit hypothesis states that MLD could be related to more than one deficit.

Three studies examined the connection between cognitive abilities and arithmetic. Study one and three compared different groups of children with or without MLD (or risk of MLD). Study two investigated the connection between early number knowledge, verbal working memory and the development of arithmetic ability.

The results favoring the multiple deficit hypothesis, more specifically the result indicate that number sense deficit together with working memory functions constitutes risk-factors to the development of MLD in children. A simple developmental model that is based on von Asters and Shalev´s (2007) model and the present results is suggested, in order to understand the development of MLD in children.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingens syfte var att testa och kontrastera hypoteser om vilka kognitiva förutsättningar som är centrala för utvecklandet av matematiska inlärningssvårigheter (MLD) hos barn. De hypoteser som prövas i avhandlingen är följande: a) den domängenerella hypotesen, detta innebär att den förmodade störningen/nedsättningen finns primärt i barnets generella förmågor, främst då i arbetsminnes funktioner. b) en nedsättning i den medfödda approximativa antalsuppfattningen. c) nedsättning i den exakta antalskodningen. d) nedsättning gällande kopplingen mellan den kulturellt betingande symboliska nivå (räkneord och siffror) samt den medfödda antalsuppfattningen (eller antalskodningen). e) slutligen prövas även hypotesen att MLD kan härröras från flera nedsättningar i dessa förmågor.

I tre studier undersöktes kopplingen mellan kognitiva förmågor och aritmetik. i studie1 och 3 jämfördes grupper av barn med MLD (eller risk för MLD) med grupper av barn som inte hade MLD i studie 2 undersöktes kopplingen mellan förmågorna verbalt arbetsminne och tidig sifferkunskap samt tidig aritmetiskförmåga.

Sammantaget indikerar resultaten från denna avhandling att det kan vara både multipla och enstaka kognitiva förmågor, primärt i den approximativa antalsuppfattningen samt i arbetsminnesfunktioner, som kan fungera som riskförutsättningar för utvecklande av MLD hos barn. Dock måste dessa förmågor samspela med andra faktorer som kan fungera kompensatoriskt eller riskhöjande för utvecklandet av MLD. En förenklad utvecklingsmodell med utgångspunkten i resultaten från studierna samt von Asters och Shalevs (2007) modell föreslås. Syftet med modellen är att den ska kunna användas som teoretiskt ramverk för att förstå utvecklingen av MLD hos barn.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. 56 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 584Linköping Studies in Behavioural Science, ISSN 1654-2029 ; 177
Keyword
Mathematical learning disability, dyscalculia, mathematical cognition, number sense, Matematiska inlärningssvårigheter, dyskalkyli, matematisk kognition, antalsuppfattning
National Category
Social Sciences Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96799 (URN)978-91-7519-565-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-09-13, I:101, Hus I, Camus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2013-08-28Bibliographically approved

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Östergren, RickardTräff, Ulf

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