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Modeling and Estimation for Dry Clutch Control
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasing demands on comfort, performance, and fuel efficiency in vehicles lead to more complex transmission solutions. One such solution is the Automated Manual Transmission (AMT). It works just like an ordinary manual transmission but the clutch and gear selection are computer controlled. In this way high efficiency can be accomplished with increased comfort and performance. To be able to control and fully utilize an AMT it is of great importance to have knowledge about how torque is transmitted in the clutch. The transmitted torque in a slipping dry clutch is therefore studied in experiments with a heavy duty truck (HDT). It is shown that material expansion with temperature can explain torque variations up to 700 Nm for the same clutch actuator position. A dynamic clutch temperature model that can describe the torque variations is developed. The dynamic model is validated in experiments, and shown to reduce the error in transmitted torque from 7 % to 3 % of the maximum engine torque compared to a static model.

The clutch model is extended with lock-up/break-a-part dynamics and an extra state describing wear. The former is done using a state machine and the latter using a slow random walk for a parameter corresponding to the clutch disc thickness. An observability analysis shows that the augmented model is fully or partially observable depending on the mode of operation. In particular, by measuring the actuator position the temperature states are observable, both during slipping of the clutch and when it is fully closed. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) was developed and evaluated on measurement data. The estimated states converged from poor initial values, enabling prediction of the translation of the torque transmissibility curve. The computational complexity of the EKF is low and it is thus suitable for real-time applications.

The clutch model is also integrated into a driveline model capable of capturing vehicle shuffle (longitudinal speed oscillations). Parameters are estimated to fit an HDT and the complete model shows good agreement with data. It is used to show that the effect of thermal expansion, even for moderate temperatures, is significant in launch control applications.

An alternative use of the driveline model is also investigated here. It is found that the amplitude discretization in production road-slope sensors can excite vehicle shuffle dynamics in the model, which is not present in the real vehicle. To overcome this problem road-slope information is analyzed and it is shown that a third-order butterworth low-pass filter can attenuate the vehicle shuffle, while the shape of the road profile is maintained. 

All experiments in the thesis are performed using production HDTs only, i.e. production sensors only. Since all modeling, parameter estimation, observer design and validation are performed with production sensors it is straight forward to implement the results in a production HDT following the presented methodology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. , 29 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1616
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96901ISBN: 978-91-7519-523-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-96901DiVA: diva2:643881
Presentation
2013-10-04, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
LINK-SIC
Funder
Vinnova, LINK-SIC
Available from: 2013-08-29 Created: 2013-08-28 Last updated: 2013-10-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Torque Model with Fast and Slow Temperature Dynamics of a Slipping Dry Clutch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Torque Model with Fast and Slow Temperature Dynamics of a Slipping Dry Clutch
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE VEHICLE POWER AND PROPULSION CONFERENCE (VPPC), IEEE , 2012, 851-856 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The transmitted torque in a slipping dry clutch is studied in experiments with a heavy duty truck. It is shown that the torque characteristic has little or no dependence on slip speed, but that there are two dynamic effects that make the torque vary up to 900 Nm for the same clutch actuator position. Material expansion with temperature can explain both phenomena and a dynamic clutch temperature model with two different time constants is developed. The dynamic model is validated in experiments, with an error of only 3% of the maximum engine torque, and is shown to improve the behavior significantly compared to a static model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96527 (URN)10.1109/VPPC.2012.6422728 (DOI)000316957600171 ()978-1-4673-0953-0 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), Oct. 9-12, 2012, Seoul, Korea
Available from: 2013-08-21 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2014-07-11Bibliographically approved
2. The Effect of Thermal Expansion in a Dry Clutch on Launch Control: Advances in Automotive Control, Volume # 7, Part # 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Thermal Expansion in a Dry Clutch on Launch Control: Advances in Automotive Control, Volume # 7, Part # 1
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A dry clutch model with thermal dynamics is added to a driveline model of a heavy-duty truck equipped with an automated manual transmission. The model captures driveline oscillations and can be used to simulate how different clutch-control strategies affect vehicle performance, drivability and comfort. Parameters are estimated to fit a heavy-duty truck and the complete model is validated with respect to shuffle, speed trajectory, clutch torque and clutch lock-up/break-apart behavior. The model shows good agreement with data. Furthermore the model is used to study the effect of thermal expansion in the clutch on launch control. It is shown that the effect of thermal expansion, even for moderate temperatures, is significant in launch control applications.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96914 (URN)10.3182/20130904-4-JP-2042.00088 (DOI)
Conference
7th IFAC Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control, September 4-7, Tokyo, Japan
Available from: 2013-08-29 Created: 2013-08-29 Last updated: 2014-07-11Bibliographically approved
3. Modeling, Observability, and Estimation of Thermal Effects and Aging on Transmitted Torque in a Heavy Duty Truck with a Dry Clutch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling, Observability, and Estimation of Thermal Effects and Aging on Transmitted Torque in a Heavy Duty Truck with a Dry Clutch
2015 (English)In: IEEE/ASME transactions on mechatronics, ISSN 1083-4435, E-ISSN 1941-014X, Vol. 20, no 1, 61-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A transmission with both high comfort and high efficiency is the Automated Manual Transmission (AMT). To be able to control and fully utilize this type of transmission it is of great importance to have knowledge about the torque transmissibility curve of the clutch. The transmitted torque in a slipping dry clutch is therefore studied in experiments with a heavy duty truck (HDT). It is shown that the torque characteristic has little or no dependence on slip speed, but that there are two dynamic effects that make the torque vary up to 900 Nm for the same clutch actuator position. Material expansion with temperature can explain both phenomena and a dynamic clutch temperature model that can describe the dynamic torque variations is developed. The dynamic model is validated in experiments, and it is shown to reduce the error in transmitted torque from 7 % to 3 % of the maximum engine torque compared to a static model. Clutch wear is also a dynamic phenomenon that is of interest to track and compensate for, and therefore the model is augmented with an extra state describing wear. An observability analysis is performed showing that the augmented model is fully or partially observable depending on the mode of operation. In particular, by measuring the actuator position the temperature states are observable, both during slipping of the clutch and when it is fully closed. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which observes the temperature states, was developed since it is straight forward to incorporate different modes of operation. The EKF was evaluated on measurement data and the estimated states converged from poor initial values, enabling prediction of the translation of the torque transmissibility curve. The computional complexity of the EKF is low and thus it is suitable for real-time applications. Modeling, parameter estimation, observer design and validation are all carried out using production sensors only and therefore it is straight forward to implement the observer in a production HDT following the presented methodology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Keyword
clutch control, temperature, observer, Extended Kalman Filter (EKF)
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96857 (URN)10.1109/TMECH.2014.2303859 (DOI)000352060700006 ()
Projects
LINK-SIC
Funder
VINNOVA, LINK-SIC
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this publication was Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-08-28 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Road Slope Analysis and Filtering for Driveline Shuffle Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Road Slope Analysis and Filtering for Driveline Shuffle Simulation
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In powertrain analysis, simulation of driveline models are standard tools, where efficient and accurate simulations are important features of the models. One input signal with high impact on the accuracy is the road slope. Here it is found that the amplitude discretization in production road-slope sensors can excite vehicle shuffle dynamics in the model, which is not present in the real vehicle. To overcome this problem road-slope information is analyzed with the aid of both measured and synthetic road profiles, where the latter are generated from regulatory road specifications. The analysis shows that it is possible to separate vehicle shuffle resonances and road-slope information, and designs are proposed for on- and off-line filtering of the road-slope-sensor signal in spatial coordinates. Applying the filter to measured data shows that vehicle shuffle is significantly attenuated, while the shape of the road slope profile is maintained. As a byproduct the use of smoothing the rolling resistance is shown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Federation of Automatic Control, 2012
Series
Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling, ISSN 1474-6670 ; 3
Keyword
Driveline Simulation; Driveline Modeling; Validation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96849 (URN)10.3182/20121023-3-FR-4025.00014 (DOI)978-3-902823-16-8 (ISBN)
Conference
IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control Simulation and Modeling (ECOSM 2012), 23-25 October 2012, IFP Energies nouvelles, Rueil-Malmaison, France
Projects
LINK-SIC
Funder
Vinnova, LINK-SIC
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2014-07-11

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Myklebust, Andreas

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