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The Nordic Football Injury Audit: higher injury rates for professional football clubs with third-generation artificial turf at their home venue
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
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2013 (English)In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 12, 775-781 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Previously, no difference in acute injury rate has been found when playing football on artificial turf (AT) compared with natural grass (NG).

Aim To compare acute injury rates in professional football played on AT and NG at the individual player level; and to compare, at club level, acute and overuse injury rates between clubs that have AT at their home venue (AT clubs) and clubs that have NG (NG clubs).

Methods 32 clubs (AT, n=11; NG, n=21) in the male Swedish and Norwegian premier leagues were followed prospectively during the 2010 and 2011 seasons. Injury rate was expressed as the number of time loss injuries/1000 h and compared with rate ratio (RR) and 99% CI.

Results No statistically significant differences were found in acute injury rates on AT compared with NG during match play (RR 0.98, 99% CI 0.79 to 1.22) or training (RR 1.14, 99% CI 0.86 to 1.50) when analysing at the individual player level. When analysing at the club level, however, AT clubs had a significantly higher acute training injury rate (RR 1.31, 99% CI 1.04 to 1.63) and overuse injury rate (RR 1.38, 99% CI 1.14 to 1.65) compared with NG clubs.

Conclusions At the individual player level, no significant differences were found in acute injury rates when playing on AT compared with NG. However, clubs with AT at their home venue had higher rates of acute training injuries and overuse injuries compared with clubs that played home matches on NG.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group , 2013. Vol. 47, no 12, 775-781 p.
Keyword [en]
Ankle injuries, Epidemiology, Lower extremity injuries, Soccer, Sporting injuries
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97450DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092266ISI: 000322868800017OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-97450DiVA: diva2:647834
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports||Swedish Football Association||Praktikertjanst AB||County Council of Ostergotland||Royal Norwegian Ministry of Culture and Church Affairs||South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority||International Olympic Committee||Norwegian Olympic Committee & Confederation of Sport||Norsk Tipping AS||

Available from: 2013-09-12 Created: 2013-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Risk factors for injury in men´s professional football
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk factors for injury in men´s professional football
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis includes four papers based on three different prospective cohort studies on injury characteristics in men’s professional football. The same general methodology was used in all papers. Time-loss injuries and player individual exposure was registered for match and training separately. The general aim was to investigate potential internal and external risk factors for injury, with a focus on age, playing position, time in professional football, playing surface (artificial turf and natural grass), changes between surfaces and climate; and to evaluate the study methodology.

Paper I was based on data collected between 2001 and 2010 from 26 top professional clubs in Europe; the UCL injury study. In total, 6140 injuries and 797 389 hours of exposure were registered. A decreased general injury rate was observed for newcomers compared with established players (hazard ratio (HR), 0.77; 95% CI 0.61-0.99). Using goalkeepers as a reference, all outfield playing positions had significantly higher age-adjusted injury rates. Using players aged ≤ 21 years as a reference, the overall adjusted injury rate increased with age, with a peak injury rate among players aged 29 to 30  years (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.68).

Paper II and Paper III are based on data collected during two consecutive seasons, 2010 and 2011, in the Swedish and Norwegian male first leagues. In total, 2186 injuries and 367 490 hours of football exposure were recorded. No statistically significant differences were found in acute injury rates on artificial turf (AT) compared with natural grass (NG) during match play (rate ratio, 0.98, 99% CI 0.79-1.22) or training (rate ratio 1.14, 99% CI 0.86-1.50) when analysing at the individual player level. However, when analysing at the club level, clubs with AT installed at their home arena had a significantly higher acute training injury rate (rate ratio 1.31, 99% CI 1.04-1.63) and overuse injury rate (rate ratio 1.38, 99% CI 1.14-1.65) compared to clubs with NG installed at their home venue. No association was found between frequent surface shifts and subsequent overuse injury risk (risk ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.12). Analyses on the total cohort showed no difference in injury rates between clubs in the two climate zones (total rate ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.92-1.10).

Data included in Paper IV were collected during two consecutive seasons 2008 and 2009. During this period, two Norwegian elite football clubs were concurrently included in two research groups’ surveillance systems. The capture rate for match injuries was similar between the two audits, while the capture rate for training injuries was slightly higher with individual-based exposure recording. The inter-rater agreement in injury variable categorisations was in most aspects very high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 94 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1445
Keyword
Age, artificial turf, cohort study, elite, epidemiology, overuse injury, soccer, surface, sporting injuries, playing position
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117170 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-117170 (DOI)978-91-7519-126-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-29, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2015-04-21Bibliographically approved

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Kristenson, KarolinaWaldén, MarkusEkstrand, JanHägglund, Martin

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