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Achievable Rates of ZF Receivers in Massive MIMO with Phase Noise Impairments
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7599-4367
2013 (English)In: 2013 ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS, 2013, 1004-1008 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The effect of oscillator phase noise on the sum-rate performance of large multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems, termed as Massive MIMO, is studied. A Rayleigh fading MU-MIMO uplink channel is considered, where channel state information (CSI) is acquired via training. The base station (BS), which is equipped with an excess of antenna elements, M, uses the channel estimate to perform zero-forcing (ZF) detection. A lower bound on the sum-rate performance is derived. It is shown that the proposed receiver structure exhibits an O() array power gain. Additionally, the proposed receiver is compared with earlier studies that employ maximum ratio combining and it is shown that it can provide significant sum-rate performance gains at the medium and high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime. Further, the expression of the achievable sum rate provides new insights on the effect of various parameters on the overall system performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. 1004-1008 p.
Series
ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS, ISSN 1058-6393
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97478DOI: 10.1109/ACSSC.2013.6810441ISI: 000341772900184ISBN: 978-1-4799-2390-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-97478DiVA: diva2:647954
Conference
47th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers
Available from: 2013-09-13 Created: 2013-09-13 Last updated: 2016-09-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On the performance of Massive MIMO systems with single carrier transmission and phase noise
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the performance of Massive MIMO systems with single carrier transmission and phase noise
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the last decade we have experienced a rapid increase in the demand for high data rates over cellular networks. This increase has been partly satisfied by the introduction of multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO). In such systems, the base station (BS) is equipped with multiple antennas and the users share the time-frequency resources. However, modern communication systems are highly power inefficient. Further, the increase in demand for higher data rates is expected to accelerate in the years to come due to the popularity of mobile devices like smartphones and tablets. Hence, next generation cellular systems arerequired to exhibit high energy efficiency as well as low power  consumption. Recently, it has been shown that the deployment of a large excess of base station (BS) antennas in comparison to the served users can be a promising candidate to meet these contradictory requirements. These systems are termed as Massive MIMO. When the number of BS antennas grows large, the channels between different users become orthogonal and low complexity transceiver processing exhibits sum-rate performance that is close to optimal. In order to realize the promised gains of Massive MIMO systems, it is required that power efficient and inexpensive components are used. In contemporary cellular systems, multi-carrier transmission is used since it facilitates simple equalization at the receiver side. However, multi-carrier signals exhibit high peak-to-average-power-ratio (PAPR) and require expensive highly linear power amplifiers. Power amplifiers in this regime are also very power inefficient. On the other hand single carrier signals exhibit lower PAPR and are suitable for signal design that is more robust to non-linear power amplifiers. Further, single-carrier signals are less vulnerable to hardware impairments, such as phase noise. In this thesis we study the fundamental limits of Massive MIMO systems in terms of sum-rate performance with single-carrier transmission and phase noise and provide important insight on the design of Massive MIMO under these scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. 27 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1618
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97489 (URN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2013:52 (Local ID)978-91-7519-513-1 (ISBN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2013:52 (Archive number)LIU-TEK-LIC-2013:52 (OAI)
Presentation
2013-10-11, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-09-13 Created: 2013-09-13 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
2. Phase Noise and Wideband Transmission in Massive MIMO
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase Noise and Wideband Transmission in Massive MIMO
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the last decades the world has experienced a massive growth in the demand for wireless services. The recent popularity of hand-held devices with data exchange capabilities over wireless networks, such as smartphones and tablets, increased the wireless data traffic even further. This trend is not expected to cease in the foreseeable future. In fact, it is expected to accelerate as everyday apparatus unrelated with data communications, such as vehicles or household devices, are foreseen to be equipped with wireless communication capabilities.

Further, the next generation wireless networks should be designed such that they have increased spectral and energy efficiency, provide uniformly good service to all of the accommodated users and handle many more devices simultaneously. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (Massive MIMO) systems, also termed as large-scale MIMO, very large MIMO or full-dimension MIMO, have recently been proposed as a candidate technology for next generation wireless networks. In Massive MIMO, base stations (BSs) with a large number of antenna elements serve simultaneously only a few tens of single antenna, non-cooperative users. As the number of BS antennas grow large, the normalized channel vectors to the users become pairwise asymptotically orthogonal and, therefore, simple linear processing techniques are optimal. This is substantially different from the current design of contemporary cellular systems, where BSs are equipped with a few antennas and the optimal processing is complex. Consequently, the need for redesign of the communication protocols is apparent.

The deployment of Massive MIMO requires the use of many inexpensive and, potentially, off-the-shelf hardware components. Such components are likely to be of low quality and to introduce distortions to the information signal. Hence, Massive MIMO must be robust against the distortions introduced by the hardware impairments. Among the most important hardware impairments is phase noise, which is introduced by local oscillators (LOs) at the BS and the user terminals. Phase noise is a phenomenon of particular importance since it acts multiplicatively on the desired signal and rotates it by some random and unknown argument. Further, the promised gains of Massive MIMO can be reaped by coherent combination of estimated channel impulse responses at the BS antennas. Phase noise degrades the quality of the estimated channel impulse responses and impedes the coherent combination of the received waveforms.

In this dissertation, wideband transmission schemes and the effect of phase noise on Massive MIMO are studied. First, the use of a low-complexity single-carrier precoding scheme for the broadcast channel is investigated when the number of BS antennas is much larger than the number of served users. A rigorous, closed-form lower bound on the achievable sum-rate is derived and a scaling law on the potential radiated energy savings is stated. Further, the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with a sum-capacity upper bound and with a bound on the performance of the contemporary multi-carrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission.

Second, the effect of phase noise on the achievable rate performance of a wideband Massive MIMO uplink with time-reversal maximum ratio combining (TRMRC) receive processing is investigated. A rigorous lower bound on the achievable sum-rate is derived and a scaling law on the radiated energy efficiency is established. Two distinct LO configurations at the BS, i.e., the common LO (synchronous) operation and the independent LO (non-synchronous) operation, are analyzed and compared. It is concluded that the non-synchronous operation is preferable due to an averaging of the independent phase noise sources. Further, a progressive degradation of the achievable rate due to phase noise is observed. A similar study is extended to a flat fading uplink with zero-forcing (ZF) receiver at the BS.

The fundamental limits of data detection in a phase-noise-impaired uplink are also studied, when the channel impulse responses are estimated via uplink training. The corresponding maximum likelihood (ML) detector is provided for the synchronous and non-synchronous operations and for a general parameterization of the phase noise statistics. The symbol error rate (SER) performance at the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the detectors is studied. Finally, rigorous lower bounds on the achievable rate of a Massive MIMO-OFDM uplink are derived and scaling laws on the radiated energy efficiency are stated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 57 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1756
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127399 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-127399 (DOI)978-91-7685-791-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-06-02, Visionen, House B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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Pitarokoilis, AntoniosMohammed, Saif KhanLarsson, Erik G.

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