Endocine™, N3OA and N3OASq; Three Mucosal Adjuvants That Enhance the Immune Response to Nasal Influenza Vaccination
2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Annual outbreaks of seasonal influenza are controlled or prevented through vaccination in many countries. The seasonal vaccines used are either inactivated, currently administered parenterally, or live-attenuated given intranasally. In this study three mucosal adjuvants were examined for the influence on the humoral (mucosal and systemic) and cellular influenza A-specific immune responses induced by a nasally administered vaccine. We investigated in detail how the anionic Endocine™ and the cationic adjuvants N3OA and N3OASq mixed with a split inactivated influenza vaccine induced influenza A-specific immune responses as compared to the vaccine alone after intranasal immunization. The study showed that nasal administration of a split virus vaccine together with Endocine™ or N3OA induced significantly higher humoral and cell-mediated immune responses than the non-adjuvanted vaccine. N3OASq only significantly increased the cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, nasal administration of the influenza vaccine in combination with any of the adjuvants; Endocine™, N3OA or N3OASq, significantly enhanced the mucosal immunity against influenza HA protein. Thus the addition of these mucosal adjuvants leads to enhanced immunity in the most relevant tissues, the upper respiratory tract and the systemic circulation. Nasal influenza vaccination with an inactivated split vaccine can therefore provide an important mucosal immune response, which is often low or absent after traditional parenteral vaccination.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science , 2013. Vol. 8, no 8
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97667DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070527ISI: 000323124000019OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-97667DiVA: diva2:649979
Funding Agencies|Eurocine Vaccines||Vinnova Research funds||Halsofonden||2013-09-192013-09-192015-05-19