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Autophagy and Apoptosis Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Disorders
University of Manitoba. (Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science)
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. (Department of Biochemistry)
University of Manitoba. (Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science)
University of Manitoba. (Department of Internal Medicine)
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2014 (English)In: Progress in Neurobiology, ISSN 0301-0082, E-ISSN 1873-5118, Vol. 112, 24-49 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Autophagy and apoptosis are basic physiologic processes contributing to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Autophagy encompasses pathways that target long-lived cytosolic proteins and damaged organelles. It involves a sequential set of events including double membrane formation, elongation, vesicle maturation and finally delivery of the targeted materials to the lysosome. Apoptotic cell death is best described through its morphology. It is characterized by cell rounding, membrane blebbing, cytoskeletal collapse, cytoplasmic condensation, and fragmentation, nuclear pyknosis, chromatin condensation/fragmentation, and formation of membrane-enveloped apoptotic bodies, that are rapidly phagocytosed by macrophages or neighboring cells. Neurodegenerative disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent, especially in the Western societies, with larger percentage of members living to an older age. They have to be seen not only as a health problem, but since they are care-intensive, they also carry a significant economic burden. Deregulation of autophagy plays a pivotal role in the etiology and/or progress of many of these diseases. Herein, we briefly review the latest findings that indicate the involvement of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases. We provide a brief introduction to autophagy and apoptosis pathways focusing on the role of mitochondria and lysosomes. We then briefly highlight pathophysiology of common neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's diseases, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Then, we describe functions of autophagy and apoptosis in brain homeostasis, especially in the context of the aforementioned disorders. Finally, we discuss different ways that autophagy and apoptosis modulation may be employed for therapeutic intervention during the maintenance of neurodegenerative disorders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kidlington, Oxford, United Kingdom: Pergamon Press, 2014. Vol. 112, 24-49 p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99887DOI: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.10.004ISI: 000330911300002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-99887DiVA: diva2:658741
Available from: 2013-10-22 Created: 2013-10-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06

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Jangamreddy, Jaganmohan R.Christoffersson, JonasChaabane, WiemŁos, Marek J

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