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Family Matters: Essays on Family Firms and Employment Protection
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is a study of firm dynamics, family ownership, and employment protection. It addresses the implications of employment protection on firm productivity and how family owned firms react differently with regard to economic shocks. It also investigates whether family ownership matters for the probability of exhibiting high growth. By using a novel data identification strategy, family ownership is identified in full population register data. The thesis also highlights some important caveats in the official statistics on self-employment.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling behandlar företagsdynamik, familjeägande och anställningsskydd. I avhandlingen analyseras anställningsskyddet och hur det påverkar företagens produktivitet, samt hur familjeägda företag reagerar på chocker inom industrin. I avhandlingen analyseras också hur familjeägande påverkar sannolikheten för ett företag att uppnå en hög tillväxttakt. Genom att kombinera olika statistikkällor kan samtliga familjeföretag i den den svenska företagspopulationen identifieras. Avhandlingen belyser också några av de problem som finns i den officiella statistiken över egenföretagare. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. , 35 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 592
Keyword [en]
Family firms, employment protection, firm dynamics, high-growth firms
Keyword [sv]
Familjeföretag, anställningsskydd, företagsdynamik, snabbväxande företag
National Category
Economics and Business Economics Business Administration
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100156DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-100156ISBN: 978-91-7519-495-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-100156DiVA: diva2:660505
Public defence
2013-11-29, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Note on Employment and GDP in Family-Owned Business: A Descriptive Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Note on Employment and GDP in Family-Owned Business: A Descriptive Analysis
2011 (English)In: Family Business Review, ISSN 0894-4865, E-ISSN 1741-6248, Vol. 24, no 4, 362-371 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish government gathers information that helps identify family-owned businesses and enabled the authors to analyze every business in the economy over a longer period than has heretofore been reported. Using these data, the authors found that family-owned businesses account for up to one fourth of total employment and one fifth of gross domestic product in Sweden. These shares have increased over time due, in part, to economic policy. The authors compare their findings with other studies and suggest how Sweden and other governments might make family firm data more readily available for researchers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
Keyword
family firms, employment, GDP, Sweden, ownership
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73259 (URN)10.1177/0894486511420138 (DOI)000297705100006 ()
Available from: 2011-12-28 Created: 2011-12-28 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Using self-employment as proxy for entrepreneurship: some empirical caveats
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using self-employment as proxy for entrepreneurship: some empirical caveats
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 17, no 3, 290-303 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on entrepreneurship has received an increased amount of interest in recent years, with self-employment being used as the most common proxy for "entrepreneurship" in empirical studies. However, there are various ways of defining selfemployment, making it a somewhat dubious proxy. This may flaw the analysis, especially in cross-country studies, since the documentation of data often is insufficient and difficult to access due to language barriers. We present an analysis of Swedish self-employment data. We show that the measurement of self-employment has changed over time to noticeably affect the reported number of self-employed in the two major statistical sources on self-employment. The reported development of self-employment sometimes differs diametrically depending on source. Sweden is occasionally erroneously reported to show the largest increase in selfemployment in cross-country studies. Our study mimics the results of other country-specific analyses and we conclude that well-grounded conclusions require that the advantages and disadvantages of different statistical sources are recognized.

Keyword
Labour Force Survey; LFS; self-employed; self-employment; entrepreneurship; RAMS; global entrepreneurship index; GEINDEX; high impact entrepreneurship; COMParative ENtrepreneurship Data for International Analysis; COMPENDIA; Sweden
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81619 (URN)10.1504/IJESB.2012.049578 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2012-09-18 Last updated: 2017-12-07
3. High-growth firms and family ownership
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-growth firms and family ownership
2013 (English)In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 26, no 4, 365-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Empirical studies demonstrate that most net job-growth originates from a small number of high-growth firms (HGFs). The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether family ownership matters for being an HGF, using data on all private firms in Sweden during 1993–2006. Our study is possible due to a tax reform that required tax authorities to identify family relations among ultimate owners of every Swedish firm. We find that family ownership at first sight decreases the probability of exhibiting high growth, but further analysis indicates a more complex relationship. The negative effect of family ownership seems to be driven primarily by small firms, and sometimes even becomes positive when firm growth is analyzed over longer time periods. In addition, the negative effect of family ownership is no longer present when we analyze firms that transferred ownership and control for unobserved time-invariant firm-specific heterogeneity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2013
Keyword
high-growth firms; gazelles; firm growth; firm ownership; family firms
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95882 (URN)10.1080/08276331.2013.821765 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-08-05 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Sensitivity to Shocks in Family Firms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensitivity to Shocks in Family Firms
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this study I examine the sensitivity to industry shocks in Swedish family firms. Family firms are believed to be more risk averse, have longer time horizons, and family owners are more easily identified with their company and its actions. I find that employment and sales in non-listed family firms are less sensitive to industry sales shocks. By being more cautious in terms of employment and sales, family firms could potentially function as to smooth out business cycles. The empirical analysis is based on full population data on Swedish firms from 1993 to 2009. By using data from tax registers, I am able to identify all family firms, both listed and non-listed. This has previously not been feasible. I also present tentative results on differences in wages and employment turnover. The estimations indicate that non-listed family firms pay lower wages on average. Moreover, family firms are found to have a lower probability of downsizing and growing in terms of employment. In contrast to earlier studies, no effect on any of the outcomes are found for listed firms. 

National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100219 (URN)
Available from: 2013-10-31 Created: 2013-10-31 Last updated: 2013-11-03
5. The Effect of Employment Protection Rules on Firm Productivity - A Natural Experiment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Employment Protection Rules on Firm Productivity - A Natural Experiment
2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper I study the effect of employment protection rules on firm productivity using micro data on Swedish firms. A reform of the employment protection rules in 2001 made it possible for small firms to exempt two employees from the last-in-first-out rules. The reform targeted only firms with less than 11 employees, representing a natural experiment. I exploit this using a difference-in-differences framework to estimate the reform's effect on labor productivity. By using firm register data I am able to get a precise estimate of labor productivity for all firms in the economy. The results indicate that the reform increased labor productivity by 2.5 percent for the treatment group of small firms compared to the control group of larger firms. This is shown to be economically significant. The results appear to be driven by the smallest firms and firms that were downsizing. When restricting the sample to include only firms that were downsizing and firms that stayed within the group of treatment and control throughout the whole time period, the estimated increase in labor productivity reaches 6 percent. This effect is likely due to a combination of a decrease in moral hazard behavior and an increased possibility for small firms to retain or lay o personnel based on the worker's idiosyncratic productivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI), 2013. 38 p.
Series
HUI Working Papers, 82
Keyword
Employment Protection; Labor Market Regulations; Labor Productivity; Last-in-First-out Rules
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90628 (URN)
Note

JEL codes: D22, J08, J32, J38, K31, O43

Available from: 2013-04-02 Created: 2013-04-02 Last updated: 2015-03-03Bibliographically approved

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