Retrospectively Gated Intra-cardiac 4D Flow MRI using Spiral Trajectories
2016 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, ISSN 0740-3194, E-ISSN 1522-2594, Vol. 75, no 1, 196-206 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background: Four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI is a powerful tool for the quantification of blood flow and enables calculation of a range of unique hemodynamic parameters. However, the application of cardiac 4D flow MRI is limited by long scan times (20-40 minutes). The high efficiency of spiral readouts can be used to reduce scan times without sacrificing SNR. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a retrospectively gated 4D flow MRI sequence using spiral readouts for the measurement of intra-cardiac velocities.
Methods: A retrospectively ECG gated 4D flow sequence using stacks of spiral readouts was implemented on a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner. The spiral 4D flow MRI sequence was validated in-vivo by comparisons with a two-dimensional (2D) through-plane velocity measurement and a conventional Cartesian 4D flow acquisition (SENSE factor 2) in 7 healthy volunteers (age 27 ± 3 years, four men) and 2 patients (age 19 and 52, women, only spiral 4D flow and 2D). Net volume flow was estimated from all three acquisition approaches and compared using one-way ANOVA. A quantitative pathline based validation was performed on the Cartesian and the spiral 4D flow MRI acquisitions by comparing the left ventricular inflow and outflow (two-tailed paired t-tests).
Results: The scan time of the spiral 4D flow sequence was 44±6% of the Cartesian counterpart. Compared to time-resolved 2D flow in the aorta, the spiral and Cartesian 4D flow acquisitions provided similarly good data, as there was no significant difference between the net volume flow for all acquisitions (Spiral: 89±14 ml, Cartesian: 93±11 ml, 2D: 93±18 ml, p=0.878). There was no significant difference between pathline-based calculations of inflow and outflow with either Cartesian (In: 88±15, Out: 85±16, p = 0.168) or spiral (In: 93±17 ml, Out: 84±18, p = 0.055) 4D flow acquisitions.
Conclusions: Retrospectively gated spiral cardiac 4D flow MRI permits more than two-fold reduction in scan time compared to conventional Cartesian 4D flow MRI without notable loss in data quality. The time-savings offered by spiral trajectories could provide a step towards the expanded clinical use of 4D flow MRI.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016. Vol. 75, no 1, 196-206 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-101103DOI: 10.1002/mrm.25612ISI: 000367739200019OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-101103DiVA: diva2:665277
Funding agencies: European Research Council ; Swedish Research Council; Swedish Heart and Lung foundation2013-11-192013-11-192016-02-02Bibliographically approved