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Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden. (Linnaeus Centre HEAD)
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden. (Linnaeus Centre HEAD)
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. (Linnaeus Centre HEAD)
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. (Linnaeus Centre HEAD)
2013 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, 113-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

To compare the effect of cognitive workload in individuals with and without hearing loss, respectively, in driving situations with varying degree of complexity.

Methods

24 participants with moderate hearing loss (HL) and 24 with normal hearing (NH) experienced three different driving conditions: Baseline driving; Critical events with a need to act fast; and a Parked car event with the possibility to adapt the workload to the situation. Additionally, a Secondary task (observation and recalling of 4 visually displayed letters) was present during the drive, with two levels of difficulty in terms of load on the phonological loop. A tactile signal, presented by means of a vibration in the seat, was used to announce the Secondary task and thereby simultaneously evaluated in terms of effectiveness when calling for driver attention. Objective driver behavior measures (M and SD of driving speed, M and SD of lateral position, time to line crossing) were accompanied by subjective ratings during and after the test drive.

Results

HL had no effect on driving behavior at Baseline driving, where no events occurred. Both during Secondary task and at the Parked car event HL was associated with decreased mean driving speed compared to baseline driving. The effect of HL on the Secondary task performance, both at Baseline driving and at the lower Difficulty Level at Critical events, was more skipped letters and fewer correctly recalled letters. At Critical events, task difficulty affected participants with HL more. Participants were generally positive to use vibrations in the seat as a means for announcing the Secondary task.

Conclusions

Differences in terms of driving behavior and task performance related to HL appear when the driving complexity exceeds Baseline driving either in the driving task, Secondary task or a combination of both. This leads to a more cautious driving behavior with a decreased mean driving speed and less focus on the Secondary task, which could be a way of compensating for the increasing driving complexity. Seat vibration was found to be a feasible way to alert drivers with or without HL.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 21, 113-121 p.
Keyword [en]
Hearing loss; Cognitive workload; Distraction; Support system
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-101198DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2013.09.011ISI: 000329413500010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-101198DiVA: diva2:665652
Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-11-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effects of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Effekter av hörselnedsättning på trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet
Abstract [en]

The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate traffic safety and mobility for individuals with hearing loss (HL). Three studies were conducted: 1. a questionnaire survey aimed to evaluate differences in choice of transportation that might be related to HL, 2. a driving simulator study that looked into compensatory strategies and evaluated the efficiency of a tactile signal to alert the driver, and 3. a field study to evaluate these effects in real traffic and to evaluate a navigation system with a supportive tactile signal. The effects of HL discovered in this thesis add to the knowledge and understanding of the influence of HL on traffic safety and mobility. Differences found consistently point to a generally more cautious behavior. Compensatory and coping strategies associated with HL are bound to driving complexity and appear when complexity increases. These strategies include driving at lower speeds, using a more comprehensive visual search behavior and being less engaged in distracting activities. Evaluation of a tactile signal showed that by adding a tactile modality, some driver assistance systems can also be made accessible to drivers with HL. At the same time, the systems might be more effective for all users, since the driver can be more focused on the road. Based on the results in this thesis, drivers with HL cannot be considered an increased traffic safety risk, and there should be no need for adjustments of the requirements of hearing for a license to drive a car.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med den här doktorsavhandlingen var att undersöka trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet för individer med hörselnedsättning (HN). Tre studier har genomförts: 1. en enkätstudie för att undersöka skillnader i transportvanor relaterade till HN, 2. en körsimulatorstudie for att titta på kompensatoriska strategier och utvärdera effektiviteten i en taktil signal för att påkalla förarens uppmärksamhet och 3. en fältstudie för att undersöka effekterna i riktig trafik samt utvärdera ett navigationssystem med en taktil signal som stöd för navigering. Effekterna av HN som kom fram i denna avhandling bidrar till kunskapen och förståelsen för hur HN påverkar trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet. De funna skillnaderna pekar konsistent mot ett generelltmera försiktigt beteende. Kompensatoriska - och copingstrategier förknippade med HN beror på körkomplexitet och observeras när komplexiteten ökar. Dessa strategier innebär körning med lägre hastighet, mera heltäckande visuell avsökning och mindre engagemang i distraherande uppgifter. Utvärdering av en taktil signal visade att genom att lägga till en taktil modalitet kan vissa förarstödsystem bli tillgängliga även för förare med HN. Samtidigt kan systemen bli mera effektiva för alla användare eftersom föraren då kan fokusera mera på vägen. Baserat på resultaten i den här avhandlingen kan inte förare med HN betraktas som någon förhöjd risk och det bör därmed inte finnas något behov av att justera hörselkraven när det gäller körkortsinnehav.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 81 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 636Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 69
Keyword
Hearing loss, traffic safety, cognitive workload, tactile support, Hörselnedsättning, trafiksäkerhet, kognitiv belastning, taktilt stöd
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111933 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-111933 (DOI)978-91-7519-178-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-05, I:101, Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2015-01-28Bibliographically approved

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