Occupational Noise, Smoking, and a High Body Mass Index are Risk Factors for Age-related Hearing Impairment and Moderate Alcohol Consumption is Protective: A European Population-based Multicenter Study
2008 (English)In: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, ISSN 1525-3961, E-ISSN 1438-7573, Vol. 9, no 3, 264-276 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
A multicenter study was set up to elucidate the environmental and medical risk factors contributing to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Nine subsamples, collected by nine audiological centers across Europe, added up to a total of 4,083 subjects between 53 and 67 years. Audiometric data (pure-tone average [PTA]) were collected and the participants filled out a questionnaire on environmental risk factors and medical history. People with a history of disease that could affect hearing were excluded. PTAs were adjusted for age and sex and tested for association with exposure to risk factors. Noise exposure was associated with a significant loss of hearing at high sound frequencies (>1 kHz). Smoking significantly increased high-frequency hearing loss, and the effect was dose-dependent. The effect of smoking remained significant when accounting for cardiovascular disease events. Taller people had better hearing on average with a more pronounced effect at low sound frequencies (<2 kHz). A high body mass index (BMI) correlated with hearing loss across the frequency range tested. Moderate alcohol consumption was inversely correlated with hearing loss. Significant associations were found in the high
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2008. Vol. 9, no 3, 264-276 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-101430DOI: 10.1007/s10162-008-0123-1PubMedID: 18543032OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-101430DiVA: diva2:666258