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Towards a Framework for Process Mapping and Performance Measurement in Construction Supply Chains
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8989-4869
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose with this study is to develop a framework for process mapping and performance measurement in construction supply chains. This is done as current literature suggest that many of the problems that cause the cost- and time overruns in construction can be mitigated by implementing supply chain management (SCM) principles. For example, temporary organisations, fragmentation, etc. can affect the time and cost as work and information among members easily are delayed and even distorted. It is also recognised by many authors that planning the construction work and logistics often are tainted with synchronisation and coordination problems between supply chain members. It is deemed necessary with a framework for mapping logistic activities and measuring supply chain performance. Up until now, there exists no framework for mapping the whole construction supply chain and measuring its performance, that encompasses the whole chain from raw material to the finished building.

As stated above, the purpose with this thesis is to develop such a framework. In order to do so an existing framework is used as a basis, the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model. The SCOR model consists of five process groups (Plan, Source, Make, Deliver, and Return) hierarchically structured in three levels and some 500 predefined performance metrics. This framework is proven fruitful in other industries but it is also proven by other authors in the field suitable as a basis for a construction adapted version. Other frameworks do exist, but none of these are as comprehensive as the SCOR model. Resent research also suggests that the SCOR model is possible to adjust to unique industry settings. It is identified in this study that the SCOR model has to be adapted to the characteristics of the construction industry. Therefore, the framework presented in this thesis is developed via adaption of the SCOR model to the characteristics of the construction industry. In doing so, a total of four research objectives corresponding to the process groups in the SCOR model are considered for adapting the SCOR model. The Return process, however, is not included in this thesis.

Objective 1. Adapt the SCOR model’s Deliver process to the characteristics of the construction industry.

Objective 2. Adapt the SCOR model’s Source processes to the characteristics of the construction industry.

Objective 3. Adapt the SCOR model’s Make processes to the characteristics of the construction industry.

Objective 4. Adapt the SCOR model’s Plan processes to the characteristics of the construction industry.

The main method utilised in the study is case study research. The results are derived from a total of three case studies. The SCOR model is applied to the cases as it is. Through observing how suitable the framework is for the industry the four aforementioned objectives are addressed. Except from direct observations (with time measurements), other data gathering methods utilised are questionnaires and interviews.

The adapted version of the SCOR model is entitled the Builder’s SCOR model (BSCOR). Findings from the studies indicate that necessary changes to the SCOR model concerns how the material flow in the processes are separated. The SCOR model suggests separating materials based on type of end product (e.g. Make-to-Stock – MTS, Make-to-Order – MTO, or Engineer-to-Order – ETO character). In the BSCOR model, the flow of materials are separated based on who orders them (the main contractor or any of the subcontractors), rather than type of material. The BSCOR model also suggests how the planning process should be organised in order to overcome coordination issues. Finally, one measurement included in the BSCOR model is to keep track of whether an incoming delivery of construction materials is notified in time. An order is not perfectly delivered if it is not notified in time.

One managerial contribution with the study is a framework for mapping supply chain activities and measuring supply chain performance. The framework also offers the ability to measure how the supply chain of a company performs compared to other companies’ supply chains. The study contributes to the academia as it fills the gap of a lack in frameworks suitable for mapping and measuring construction logistics. It also contributes in reporting on the current logistics status in the construction industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. , 76 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1631
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-101964DOI: 10.3384/lic.diva-101964Local ID: LIU-TEK-LIC-2013:65ISBN: 978-91-7519-462-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-101964DiVA: diva2:667009
Presentation
2013-12-06, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Using the SCOR model’s performance measurements to improve construction logistics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using the SCOR model’s performance measurements to improve construction logistics
2014 (English)In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 25, no 13/14, 1056-1078 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, construction material supplier and construction site performance are assessed according to the supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model. Current applicable literature focuses mainly on assessing the main contractor’s ability to construct a building according to customer requirements, i.e. construction performance. Omitting supplier performance when evaluating construction performance reduces the ability to improve the construction supply chain, as reasons for cost and time overruns and quality deficiencies will often be overlooked. In this paper, the SCOR metrics perfect order fulfilment (POF), source cycle time (SCT) and cost to source(CS) are measured to assess construction supplier reliability and construction site responsiveness. The values for POF, SCT and CS are measured to be 38%, 134 min and EUR 249, respectively. The practical implications are summarised in five improvement suggestions concerning communication, predefined material allocation, supplier performance assessment, delivery verification and notification and use of the SCOR model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keyword
construction industry, construction logistics, construction SCM, performance measurement, SCOR
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96788 (URN)10.1080/09537287.2013.808836 (DOI)000343288400002 ()
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06
2. Adapting the SCOR model to the construction industry settings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adapting the SCOR model to the construction industry settings
2012 (English)In: Nofoma 2012 - Proceedings of the 24th Annual Nordic Logistics Research Network Conference, 7-8 June, Naantali, Finland / [ed] Juuso Töyli, Laura Johansson, Harri Lorentz, Lauri Ojala and Sini Laari, Åbo, Finland: Turku School of Economics , 2012, , 20 p.719-737 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve construction logistics by introducing an adapted version of the SCOR (Supply Chain Operations and Reference) model. Sub-processes and metrics related to the Deliver and Source processes in the SCOR model that are in need of changes to adapt SCOR to the construction industry settings are identified.

Design/methodology/approach

By observing the Deliver and Source processes and metrics in the SCOR model at a construction site, suggestions for important changes that need to be made to the SCOR model are given. This is done by using case study as a research method for theory building.

Findings

Findings from the case study result in proposals for new Deliver and Source  sub-processes, changes in current sub-processes and new metrics. These changes constitute the first version of the Builder’s SCOR model (BSCOR).

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents the work of finding important changes related to the main processes Deliver (delivery of materials from supplier to site) and Source (receiving materials at site) in the SCOR model. Future work will consider important changes related to the main processes Make, Deliver (from site to customer), Plan and Return.

Originality/value

This paper analyses which parts of the SCOR model that need (or not need) to be adapted to embrace construction industry settings, resulting in a draft of a model based on the SCOR model that comprehends construction industry settings. Accordingly, this can lead to a better adaption of the processes and metrics to map, control, and coordinate the supply chain which can result in an increased profit for construction companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo, Finland: Turku School of Economics, 2012. 20 p.
Keyword
Construction, Logistics, SCOR, SCM, Metrics
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78800 (URN)978-952-249-204-3 (ISBN)
Conference
NOFOMA 2012 - The 24th Annual Nordic Logistics Research Network Conference, 7-8 June, Naantali, Finland
Available from: 2012-06-20 Created: 2012-06-20 Last updated: 2016-10-10Bibliographically approved
3. Adapting the SCOR Make Process to the Construction Industry Settings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adapting the SCOR Make Process to the Construction Industry Settings
2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since 2009, Linköping University has been running the Builder’s SCOR project. The project is supported by the research collaboration Brains&Bricks where Linköping University, the construction company Peab, and the municipality of Katrineholm participates to enhance the efficiency of the construction industry. The Builder’s SCOR model (BSCOR) is based on the SCOR model (Supply Chain Operations Reference Model) developed and supported by Supply Chain Council (SCC, 2012, SCOR, 2010). The BSCOR project is divided into several sub-projects and is still on-going. This paper reports on the third phase in the project where the Make-process of SCOR is converted to BSCOR in terms of process definitions. The first phase, the pilot study, used the SCOR model in a construction setting and evaluated how useful the model was. This work is reported in Johansson and Persson (2011) and Persson et al. (2009), where the need for something very similar to the BSCOR model is argued. The second phase included a case study of a mid-range construction project (turnover of € 1 – 10 million) where the SCOR-processes Source and Deliver were studied. This resulted in new definitions of processes and metrics in order to take the unique conditions of the construction industry into consideration. The work is reported in Persson and Thunberg (2012) and Thunberg (2011). The third phase, in this paper, studies the Make-processes in construction through two case studies of midrange construction projects. This paper outlines the results of the case studies and defines the processes in Make at the three different levels of BSCOR. As the last phase, Deliver and Plan will be studied through interviews with personnel from construction companies as well as from companies that order and buy construction projects. A study on adapting the Return-process is not conducted as the results from Thunberg (2011) indicate that faulty construction materials are seldom returned. With the four phases outlined here, a complete BSCOR model will be defined and used in several construction projects. The aim is to broaden the scope of use to other construction companies outside the collaboration of Brains&Bricks.

Publisher
20 p.
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-101963 (URN)
Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved
4. Coordinated supply chain planning in construction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordinated supply chain planning in construction
2013 (English)In: 7th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Ole Jonny Klakegg, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, 546-556 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose is to analyse how supply chain planningin construction can be better coordinated, both concerning the supply chain assuch and concerning activities on-site. A literature review and a case studyidentify a number of problems that occur due to poor coordination. To mitigatethese problems it is suggested that a structured framework, like the SupplyChain Operations Reference (SCOR) model, can facilitate the implementation ofsupply chain management so as to enhance coordination and supply chainperformance in the construction industry. The use of a structured model isargued to improve the integration of subcontractors and suppliers in the maincontractor’s planning process. The focus is on the so called “Plan” process in theSCOR model, which is the process that is used to coordinate supply chainactivities in all parts of the supply chain, including site activities. Thefindings identify which parts of the SCOR Plan process that need to be adjustedto fit the construction industry and how it can facilitate the synchronisationbetween the main contractor and its subcontractors. The main contribution is thedevelopment of a model for mapping and managing the construction planning process,so as to enhance coordination and the performance of the construction supplychain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013
Keyword
BSCOR, Construction logistics, Construction planning, Planning framework, SCOR, Supply chain management
National Category
Construction Management Building Technologies Transport Systems and Logistics Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96754 (URN)9788232102730 (ISBN)
Conference
7th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation, 12-14 June 2013, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2013-08-26 Created: 2013-08-26 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved

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