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Ultrasonic Sensor Modeling for Automatic Parallel Parking Systems in Passenger Cars
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2007 (English)In: SAE Technical Paper, 2007, 2007-01-1103- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The performance of a parking system is dependent on many factors. One is the placement of the sensors. In this paper a system which uses ultrasonic ranging sensors is considered. The mounting of a ultrasonic sensor on a passenger vehicle is restricted by, among other factors, design, assembly process, enclosure cost and reliability. All of which must be considered when choosing optimal mounting locations.

The basis of this work includes a ray-trace based simulation environment which is used to capture the physical properties of sound traveling through air. The simulation environment together with sensor models, is used to evaluate the effect of different mounting positions on the accuracy of the detection of the parking space. The Hough transform is used here, as well as in the real system, in order to extract the confining lines of the parking space from the sensor measurements. The strength of these lines are then used to compare different sensor mounting locations.

The created simulation environment differs from other work in this area since it tries to capture the physical properties of the sound waves as opposed to the geometric-only approach. The emitted sound pulse is divided into a large number of rays, each with sound properties tied to them. These rays are then traced through a model of the parking space environment, reflections are calculated and finally the summarized echo into the listening sensor is calculated.

The simulation is implemented in 3D Studio MAX which make it relatively easy to create various realistic parking scenarios. An important factor for choosing 3D Studio MAX as the basis of the simulation environment was that it allowed for a new way of modeling ultrasonics using ray-tracing, and at the same time - using the same ray-tracing technology - excellent visualization capabilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. 2007-01-1103- p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102488DOI: 10.4271/2007-01-1103OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-102488DiVA: diva2:678513
Conference
SAE 2007 World Congress & Exhibition, Detroit, MI, U.S.A., 16th–19th April, 2007
Available from: 2013-12-12 Created: 2013-12-12 Last updated: 2013-12-12
In thesis
1. Automatic parallel parking: park assist systems for passenger vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic parallel parking: park assist systems for passenger vehicles
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis discusses how the problem of parking a passenger car can be solved. There ane numerous obstacles when creating a fully or semi automated system for assisting the parking maneuver. The obstacles range from unobtrusive Man Machine Interface issues to robust algorithms for finding features in sensor data.

Such a system will also have to cope with ever changing environments, most of which will not be discovered during the design phase. Misuse will also be common, since the function is aimed at a mass market - the car buyers. These interesting problem areas is also coupled with the customer value. A car buying customer today aims at feature content and comfort. So for a parking system to survive it needs to be extremely intuitive; the customer value must be discovered during a short test drive with the vehicle. A learning period before the user can operate the system is not feasible.

The work presented here proposes an interesting algorithm for finding parking space features in sensor data collected using ultrasonics. The algorithm, which is based on the well known Hough transform have been proved to be robust in real world experiments.

Furthermore it is also investigated how critical the mount ing of the environment sensing subsystem is. Where should the sensors be placed and where should they be facing to maximize the performance.

Emphasis have also been put on designing a functional architecture that fits in the car development process of today. The implementation of a system in a car must fit in the platform and component reuse is critical to keep cost down.

To test theories developed during the work a prototype car has been used. The prototype is essential to analyze the robustness of algorithms in different parking scenarios. It has also been an invaluable tool when conducting customer surveys to find where the customer value of these kind of systems is.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2007. 42 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1287
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-41269 (URN)55422 (Local ID)91-85643-14-9 (ISBN)55422 (Archive number)55422 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-12-12

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Degerman, PärPohl, JochenSethson, Magnus

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