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A Remote Monitoring and Control System for Cultural Heritage Buildings Utilizing Wireless Sensor Networks
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation presents the study of a wireless remote monitoring and control system utilized for cultural heritage preservation purpose. The system uses wireless sensor networks to remotely monitor and control the indoor climate, i.e., temperature and relative humidity of the cultural buildings.

The system mainly consists of three parts, i.e., the wireless sensor network part, the gateway part and the web service part. Wireless sensor networks are deployed in different cultural buildings. The ZigBee protocol is utilized for the wireless sensor network communication. Sensor nodes report the indoor climate periodically. By connecting with radiators and/or dehumidifiers, the wireless control nodes can control the indoor climate according to the remote configuration. A gateway maintains the communication between a wireless sensor network and the web service. In monitoring function, the gateway forwards sensor messages from the wireless sensor network to the web service. In control function, the gateway synchronizes the climate settings from the web service to the wireless sensor network. The gateway also sends control commands to the wireless control nodes in the wireless sensor network. The web service provides a web-based user interface for the system.

Different from ordinary cable-connected sensor networks, a wireless sensor network that works for cultural heritage preservation should be a system with a large number of sensor nodes covering a large area in a building, high reliability in message transmission, low power consumption and low cost. In this study, the performance of the ZigBee wireless network is improved to meet such requirements base on the investigation of the ZigBee protocol limitation. Firstly, a method for enhancing the wireless sensor network communication reliability is developed. The reactive routing protocol defined by the ZigBee standard is improved so that the wireless nodes automatically detect and repair network communication problems. This method minimizes the message lost within the wireless sensor network by always reserving a route from the source node to the destination node. Secondly, a generic low power working method is developed for sensor devices. This method defines the general sensor module behavior which includes sensor data collecting, sensor message forwardingand wireless network rejoining upon communication failure. It allows sensor devices to maintain high message reliability with low power consumption. Especially, these methods are developed as a complementary infrastructure of the ZigBee wireless sensor network in order to increase the transmission reliability with low power consumption. Finally, methods and algorithms are developed to make it possible to power the ZigBee message relays (i.e., routers) with small batteries. In this system, the whole ZigBee network is synchronized. Wireless communications within the ZigBee network are scheduled so that every wireless transmission is collision-free. During the period when no communication is scheduled, the router can go into low power mode. This design improvement removes the original requirement of using mains power for ZigBee message relays. A truly battery-driven and low power consumption wireless sensor network is developed for monitoring cultural heritage buildings without (or with limited) mains power.

The remote control function is developed to mainly prevent biological degradation by controlling indoor climate, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. After studying the requirements for heritage preservation, a high flexibility, high reliability and low cost wireless indoor climate control system is developed. Different control algorithms are implemented to achieve different control results.

Till today, the remote monitoring and control system presented in this dissertation has been installed in 31 cultural heritage buildings both in Sweden and Norway.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 70 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1557
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102593DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-102593ISBN: 978-91-7519-448-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-102593DiVA: diva2:679457
Public defence
2014-01-29, TP1, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2013-12-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Remote Sensing System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Sensing System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A wireless remote sensing system using the ZigBee standard ispresented in this paper. This system is a wireless solution formonitoring purpose in cultural buildings in order to protectcultural heritage. The concept of this system utilizes ZigBeenetworks to carry and transmit data collected by sensors andstore them into both local and remote databases. Thus, users canmonitor the measured data locally or remotely. Especially, thepower consumption is optimized to extend the lifetime of thebattery-driven devices. Moreover, since the system has amodular architecture, it is easy to add extra services into thissystem.

Keyword
Modular system, power consumption, wireless sensor network, ZigBee
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61295 (URN)
Conference
8th. International Conference on Computing, Communications and Control Technologies (CCCT 2010), April 6 - 9, Orlando, FL, USA
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2013-12-16Bibliographically approved
2. Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, 13-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wireless solution of remote climate control for cultural buildings is presented in this paper. The system allows users to use web service to control climate in different cultural buildings, like churches. The wireless sensor networks deployed in churches receive the control commands and manage the indoor climate. The whole system is modularly designed, which makes possible an easy service extension, system reconfiguration and modification. This paper includes the system overview and the software design of each part within the system.

Keyword
ZigBee, Wireless sensor network, Remote control, Modular system design
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61293 (URN)
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Methods to improve the reliability and optimize the system latency of our own-developed ZigBee remote sensing system are introduced in this paper. The concept of this system utilizes the ZigBee network to transmit sensor information and process them at both local and remote databases. The enhancement has been done in different parts in this system. In the ZigBee network part, the network topology is configured and controlled. The latency for message transmitting is also optimized. In the data processing part, the network status check function and data buffer function are introduced to improve the system reliability. Additionally, the system latency is measured to compare with the Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector algorithm used in the ZigBee standard.

Keyword
System reliability, system latency, ZigBee network topology configuration, data buffering
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61294 (URN)10.1109/SENSORCOMM.2010.38 (DOI)978-1-4244-7538-4 (ISBN)
Conference
The Fourth International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (SENSORCOMM 2010), July 18 - 25, Venice/Mestre, Italy
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2014-09-25Bibliographically approved
4. A Fully Wireless Monitoring and Control System for Protecting Cultural Heritage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Fully Wireless Monitoring and Control System for Protecting Cultural Heritage
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of 2011 20th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises WETICE 2011, IEEE , 2011, 250-255 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a component based wireless monitoring and control system. The system is introduced from both the system architecture and function point of view. The paper begins with the introduction of the component design and the communication interaction between them. The system is composed by three components, the wireless sensor network, the local server and the main server. Wireless sensor networks are deployed in different locations for remote monitoring and control purpose. The monitoring results and control commands are synchronized between the main server and wireless sensor networks via local servers. The test results of the battery life time calculation and remote monitoring field test results are presented in the end of the paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Series
IEEE International Workshop on Enabling Technologies, ISSN 1524-4547
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71523 (URN)10.1109/WETICE.2011.43 (DOI)978-1-4577-0134-4 (ISBN)
Conference
20th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE), 27-29 June, Paris, France
Available from: 2011-10-20 Created: 2011-10-20 Last updated: 2013-12-16Bibliographically approved
5. A Communication Reliability Enhancement Framework for Wireless Sensor Network Using the ZigBee Protocol
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Communication Reliability Enhancement Framework for Wireless Sensor Network Using the ZigBee Protocol
2012 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 135, no 12, 42-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the methods for the ZigBee network reliability enhancement and the battery life time optimization. The paper begins with the introduction of the common communication problems due to the broken links between sensor module and message relay, or between different relays. Extra message hand shake mechanisms are added to solve different problem mentioned at the beginning. Finally, a general purpose reliability enhancement component is developed as a state machine which can be work together with ZigBee protocol to enhance ZigBee network communication reliability. Moreover, the battery life time of the sensor module during link broken is considerably increased after the enhancement.

Keyword
Communication reliability enhancement, ZigBee, Reusable, Reconfigurable
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79896 (URN)
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this article was "Manuscript" and the title was "A Communication Reliability Enhancement Framework for the ZigBee WirelessSensor Network".

Available from: 2012-08-15 Created: 2012-08-15 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
6. A Web-based Remote Indoor Climate Control System Based on Wireless Sensor Network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Web-based Remote Indoor Climate Control System Based on Wireless Sensor Network
Show others...
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Sensors and Sensor Networks, Vol. 1, no 3, 32-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design and implementation of a web-based wireless indoor climate control system. The user interface of the system is implemented as a web service. People can login to the website and remotely control the indoor climate of different locations. A wireless sensor network is deployed in each location to execute control commands. A gateway is implemented to synchronize the information between the wireless sensor network and the web service. The gateway software also includes scheduling function and different control algorithms to improve the control result. Additionally, the system security and availability are highly considered in this system. The gateway software implements a warning function which sends warning messages when emergency happens. Finally, the whole wireless control system architecture is modularly designed. It is easy to add different control applications or different control algorithms into the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Science Publishing Group, 2013
Keyword
Remote Control, Indoor Climate, Wireless Sensor Network
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102588 (URN)10.11648/j.ijssn.20130103.12 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2014-01-17Bibliographically approved
7. Design and Implementation of a Truly Battery-Driven ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Implementation of a Truly Battery-Driven ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network
2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As defined by the ZigBee standard, a router should be mains-powered in order to maintain the mesh feature of the ZigBee network. This study presents a method which allows the ZigBee router goes into sleep mode periodically and keeps the same mesh feature during the ZigBee communications. In this study, the standard ZigBee communication is separated into two synchronized clusters. The first cluster includes the communication between end devices and the associated router. The sensor message report time of different end devices are scheduled by the router in different collision-free time slots within a predefined time interval. The second cluster includes the mesh communication between routers and the concentrator. All routers are synchronized so that they wake up at the same time to maintain the mesh feature. In order to maximize the router battery lifetime, algorithms are developed so that the concentrator communicates with routers according to the network routing records. Additionally, in order to recover the broken communication, special logics are implemented in routers and end device so that they can rejoin the wireless sensor network with low power consumption. Finally, a battery lifetime model is presented which can be utilized to calculate battery lifetime of the ZigBee router under different network configurations.

Keyword
Low Power, ZigBee Router, Wireless Sensor Network, High Availability
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102590 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2013-12-16Bibliographically approved

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Zhang, Jingcheng

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  • apa
  • harvard1
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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