Autophagy of iron-binding proteins may contribute to the oxidative stress resistance of ARPE-19 cells
2013 (English)In: Experimental Eye Research, ISSN 0014-4835, E-ISSN 1096-0007, Vol. 116, 359-365 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The objective of this study was to elucidate possible reasons for the remarkable resistance of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to oxidative stress. Much oxidative damage is due to hydrogen peroxide meeting redox-active iron in the acidic and reducing lysosomal environment, resulting in the production of toxic hydroxyl radicals that may oxidize intralysosomal content, leading to lipofuscin (LF) formation or, if more extensive, to permeabilization of lysosomal membranes. Formation of LF is a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and known to jeopardize normal autophagic rejuvenation of vital cellular biomolecules. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization causes release of lysosomal content (redox-active iron, lytic enzymes), which may then cause cell death. Total cellular and lysosomal low-mass iron of cultured, immortalized human RPE (ARPE-19) cells was compared to that of another professional scavenger cell line, J774, using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the cytochemical sulfide-silver method (SSM). It was found that both cell lines contained comparable levels of total as well as intralysosomal iron, suggesting that the latter is mainly kept in a non-redox-active state in ARPE-19 cells. Basal levels and capacity for upregulation of the iron-binding proteins ferritin, metallothionein and heat shock protein 70 were tested in both cell lines using immunoblotting. Compared to J774 cells, ARPE-19 cells were found to contain very high basal levels of all these proteins, which could be even further upregulated following appropriate stimulation. These findings suggest that a high basal expression of iron-binding stress proteins, which during their normal autophagic turnover in lysosomes may temporarily bind iron prior to their degradation, could contribute to the unusual oxidative stress-resistance of ARPE-19 cells. A high steady state influx of such proteins into lysosomes would keep the level of lysosomal redox-active iron permanently low. This, in turn, should delay intralysosomal accumulation of LF in RPE cells, which is known to reduce autophagic turnover as well as uptake and degradation of worn out photoreceptor tips. This may explain why severe LF accumulation and AMD normally do not develop until fairly late in life, in spite of RPE cells being continuously exposed to high levels of oxygen and light, as well as large amounts of lipid-rich material.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2013. Vol. 116, 359-365 p.
oxidative stress, ARPE-19, retinal pigment epithelium, iron, metallothionein, HSP70, ferritin, age-related macular degeneration
Cell and Molecular Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102718DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2013.10.014ISI: 000327562500041OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-102718DiVA: diva2:681166
Funding Agencies|Crown Princess Margaretas Foundation for the Visually Handicapped||Edvin Jordan Foundation for Ophthalmological Research||Linkoping University Hospital Research Fund (ALF)||2013-12-192013-12-192015-03-29