HOPELESSNESS THE "ACTIVE INGREDIENT"? ASSOCIATIONS OF HOPELESSNESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS WITH INTERLEUKIN-6
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, ISSN 0091-2174, Vol. 46, no 1, 109-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Objective: Previous research has revealed a relationship of depressive symptoms and hopelessness with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which are associated with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). The objective of this study was to explore whether depressive symptoms and hopelessness are independent predictors of IL-6 levels. Method: Hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and IL-6 were measured in 45 Swedish adults (26 women and 19 men; age range: 31-65 years). Two separated linear regressions were conducted with hopelessness and depressive symptoms serving as individual predictors of IL-6. Another regression analysis examined whether the two predictors predict IL-6 when controlling for each other. The regression coefficients of the models with one predictor and with both predictors were compared. Results: As predicted, after adjusting for age, BMI, illness, smoking, and gender, more depressive symptoms and more hopelessness predicted higher IL-6 levels in independent regressions. When controlling for each other, hopelessness, but not depressive symptoms, predicted IL-6 levels. Finally, when controlling for hopelessness, the regression between depressive symptoms and IL-6 level was significantly reduced; however, there was no significant change in the regression between hopelessness and IL-6 level when controlling for depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Thus, these results suggest that depressive symptoms and hopelessness are not independent predictors of IL-6 levels. Future research should explore the interplay of hopelessness and depressive symptoms on other risk factors of CVDs.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Baywood Publishing , 2013. Vol. 46, no 1, 109-117 p.
cross-sectional study, hopelessness, depressive symptoms, interleukin-6
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102794DOI: 10.2190/PM.46.1.gISI: 000327728000007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-102794DiVA: diva2:683849