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HOPELESSNESS THE "ACTIVE INGREDIENT"? ASSOCIATIONS OF HOPELESSNESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS WITH INTERLEUKIN-6
University of Louisville, KY 40292 USA .
University of Louisville, KY 40292 USA .
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, ISSN 0091-2174, E-ISSN 1541-3527, Vol. 46, no 1, 109-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Previous research has revealed a relationship of depressive symptoms and hopelessness with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which are associated with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). The objective of this study was to explore whether depressive symptoms and hopelessness are independent predictors of IL-6 levels. Method: Hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and IL-6 were measured in 45 Swedish adults (26 women and 19 men; age range: 31-65 years). Two separated linear regressions were conducted with hopelessness and depressive symptoms serving as individual predictors of IL-6. Another regression analysis examined whether the two predictors predict IL-6 when controlling for each other. The regression coefficients of the models with one predictor and with both predictors were compared. Results: As predicted, after adjusting for age, BMI, illness, smoking, and gender, more depressive symptoms and more hopelessness predicted higher IL-6 levels in independent regressions. When controlling for each other, hopelessness, but not depressive symptoms, predicted IL-6 levels. Finally, when controlling for hopelessness, the regression between depressive symptoms and IL-6 level was significantly reduced; however, there was no significant change in the regression between hopelessness and IL-6 level when controlling for depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Thus, these results suggest that depressive symptoms and hopelessness are not independent predictors of IL-6 levels. Future research should explore the interplay of hopelessness and depressive symptoms on other risk factors of CVDs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Baywood Publishing , 2013. Vol. 46, no 1, 109-117 p.
Keyword [en]
cross-sectional study, hopelessness, depressive symptoms, interleukin-6
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102794DOI: 10.2190/PM.46.1.gISI: 000327728000007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-102794DiVA: diva2:683849
Available from: 2014-01-07 Created: 2013-12-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06

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Sjögren, ElaineKristenson, Margareta

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