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The synthesis, characterization and device fabrication of ZnO, NiO and their composite nanostructures
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electronics industry has been revolutionized since last few decades because of the fabrication of electronic devices by using nanoscale based materials. But the more innovative feature in the electronic devices is the use of transparent materials, which makes the transparent electronic devices as one of the most interesting research field in nanoscience and nano-technology now a days. In order to have high performance electronic devices based on the wide band gap compound semiconductors, a selection of right transparent material is crucial step. Among all the transparent metal oxides, ZnO is one of the potential candidates due to the ease in the synthesis process, wide bandgap of 3.37 eV, a high exciton binding energy of 60 meV and diverse morphologies. Since p-type ZnO based nanodevices are still difficult to fabricate due to the instability and unreliability of p-type ZnO nanomaterial, therefore several p-type semiconductors are used for the development of p-n junctions. Among those NiO is suitable p-type compound semiconductor to make p-n junction with ZnO because of its wide band gap of 3.7 eV and environment friendly conditions for its synthesis. Keeping these attractive properties of n-type ZnO and p-type NiO, the synthesis of composite nanostructures of these two transparent oxides and fabrication of their electronic devices is presented in this dissertation work.

I started my work with the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures focusing on the effect of different anions of zinc salts on the morphology and crystallinity of ZnO nanostructures. Then I grow honey-comb like NiO nanostructures on 3D nickel foam and used these nanostructures for the detection of Zinc ion. After that synthesized NiO and ZnO based composite nanostructures and characterized them, having main focus on the luminescence properties of ZnO when decorated with NiO nanostructures. The composite nanostructures of p-type NiO and n-type ZnO showed enhancement in the luminescence properties. Since pn junction is the back bone of electronic devices so working on the designing of band alignment along with the current transport properties of p-type NiO/n-type ZnO composite structures, an attempt was put forwarded to explain the phenomenon of these compound semiconducting materials. Different devices based on these two compound semiconducting materials are fabricated and designed in the present dissertation work, however still more work is required to improve the efficiency of devices like LEDs and UV detectors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 55 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1562
Keyword [en]
Zinc oxide; Nickel Oxide; Composite nanostructures; Wide band gap; Low temperature growth; Luminescence, Photo-detector; Light emitting diode
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103343OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-103343DiVA: diva2:688582
Public defence
2014-01-24, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2014-09-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Anions effect on the low temperature growth of ZnO nanostructures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anions effect on the low temperature growth of ZnO nanostructures
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2012 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 12, 1998-2001 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seed mediated aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route was used for the growth of ZnO nanostructures on Si substrate in four different growth mediums. The growth medium has shown to affect the morphology and the size of the different nanostructures. We observed that the medium containing zinc nitrate anions yields the nanorods, in a medium containing zinc acetate anions nano-candles are obtained. While in a medium containing zinc chloride anions ZnO nano-discs were obtained and in a medium containing zinc sulfate anions nano-flakes are achieved. Growth in these different mediums has also shown effect on the optical emission characteristics of the different ZnO nanostructures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
ZnO, Chemical growth, Nanostructures, Optical properties
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84909 (URN)10.1016/j.vacuum.2012.05.020 (DOI)000308672000041 ()
Available from: 2012-10-26 Created: 2012-10-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07
2. Potentiometric Zinc Ion Sensor Based on Honeycomb-Like NiO Nanostructures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potentiometric Zinc Ion Sensor Based on Honeycomb-Like NiO Nanostructures
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2012 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 12, no 11, 15424-15437 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study honeycomb-like NiO nanostructures were grown on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal growth method. The NiO nanostructures were characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The characterized NiO nanostructures were uniform, dense and polycrystalline in the crystal phase. In addition to this, the NiO nanostructures were used in the development of a zinc ion sensor electrode by functionalization with the highly selective zinc ion ionophore 12-crown-4. The developed zinc ion sensor electrode has shown a good linear potentiometric response for a wide range of zinc ion concentrations, ranging from 0.001 mM to 100 mM, with sensitivity of 36 mV/decade. The detection limit of the present zinc ion sensor was found to be 0.0005 mM and it also displays a fast response time of less than 10 s. The proposed zinc ion sensor electrode has also shown good reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and selectivity. The zinc ion sensor based on the functionalized NiO nanostructures was also used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations and it has demonstrated an acceptable stoichiometric relationship for the determination of zinc ion in unknown samples. The NiO nanostructures-based zinc ion sensor has potential for analysing zinc ion in various industrial, clinical and other real samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2012
Keyword
honeycomb NiO nanostructures, potentiometric response, ion selective electrode, selectivity, selective ionophore
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86653 (URN)10.3390/s121115424 (DOI)000311429500060 ()
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06
3. Decoration of ZnO nanorods with coral reefs like NiO nanostructures by the hydrothermal growth method and their luminescence study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decoration of ZnO nanorods with coral reefs like NiO nanostructures by the hydrothermal growth method and their luminescence study
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2014 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 7, no 1, 430-440 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO on n-type ZnO nanorods have been decorate on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy,  high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation has shown that the adopted synthesis has led to high crystalline quality nanostructures. Morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures were dominated by a near band gap emission at 380 nm and by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence originates mainly from the ZnO nanorods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2014
Keyword
ZnO nanorods; NiO nanostructure; composite nanostructures; defect states; cathodoluminescent
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103339 (URN)10.3390/ma7010430 (DOI)000336088500030 ()
Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. The determination of valence band offset and the current transport properties of the p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The determination of valence band offset and the current transport properties of the p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction
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2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The electron transport in the electronic devices has significant influence on the device performance, thus current transport properties determination is highly demanded for a particular device. Herein, we report the facile hydrothermal growth method based fabrication of p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction. The material characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. These techniques provided the good crystal quality, pure phase of p-NiO and n-ZnO nanostructures respectively. The measured valance band offset of composite nanostructure is 2.25 eV and conduction band offset was found to be 2.58 eV. The current transport properties of the fabricated p-n junction are governed by three different I-V regions. The impedance spectroscopy was used for the determination of the role of grain boundaries at the interface.

Keyword
Zinc oxide, nickel oxide, heterojunction, diode, current transport properties
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103340 (URN)
Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2014-03-27Bibliographically approved
5. Fabrication of UV photo-detector based on coral reef like p-NiO/n-ZnO nanocomposite structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of UV photo-detector based on coral reef like p-NiO/n-ZnO nanocomposite structures
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2013 (English)In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 108, 149-152 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this research work, a UV photo-detector is fabricated on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate by exploiting the advantageous features of p-n heterojunctions based on p-NiO and n-ZnO composite nanostructures forming a coral-reef like structures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction results showed uniform morphology and good crystal quality of the synthesised nanostructures respectively. I-V measurements have shown nonlinear and rectifying response of the p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction. The proposed photodiode exhibited excellent UV response with acceptable photocurrent generation of about 3.4 mA and the responsivity of 2.27 A/W at -3 biasing voltage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
p-NiO/n-ZnO composite nanostructures, Photodiode, UV-visible spectrophotometry
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99403 (URN)10.1016/j.matlet.2013.06.083 (DOI)000324562900038 ()
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06
6. The fabrication of white light-emitting diodes using the n-ZnO/NiO/p-GaN heterojunction with enhanced luminescence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The fabrication of white light-emitting diodes using the n-ZnO/NiO/p-GaN heterojunction with enhanced luminescence
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2013 (English)In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 8, no 320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cheap and efficient white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are of great interest due to the energy crisis all over the world. Herein, we have developed heterojunction LEDs based on the well-aligned ZnO nanorods and nanotubes on the p-type GaN with the insertion of the NiO buffer layer that showed enhancement in the light emission. Scanning electron microscopy have well demonstrated the arrays of the ZnO nanorods and the proper etching into the nanotubes. X-ray diffraction study describes the wurtzite crystal structure array of ZnO nanorods with the involvement of GaN at the (002) peak. The cathodoluminescence spectra represent strong and broad visible emission peaks compared to the UV emission and a weak peak at 425 nm which is originated from GaN. Electroluminescence study has shown highly improved luminescence response for the LEDs fabricated with NiO buffer layer compared to that without NiO layer. Introducing a sandwich-thin layer of NiO between the n-type ZnO and the p-type GaN will possibly block the injection of electrons from the ZnO to the GaN. Moreover, the presence of NiO buffer layer might create the confinement effect.

Keyword
White light-emitting diode; ZnO nanorods; Nanotubes; NiO buffer layer
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103341 (URN)10.1186/1556-276X-8-320 (DOI)000331642900001 ()
Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Abbasi, Mazhar Ali

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