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Learnables in Action: The Embodied Achievement of Opportunities for Teaching and Learning in Swedish as a Second Language Classrooms
Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7562-991X
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Lärande genom handling : Hur möjligheter till undervisning och lärande åstadkoms i svenska som andraspråkutbildning (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

This doctoral dissertation is an empirical qualitative research study on the emergence of learnables in classrooms of Swedish as a second language. It adopts a dialogical and praxeological approach, and analysis is based on video recorded teacher-student interactivities in classrooms. Learnables are taken to be linguistic items or constructs that are displayed as unknown by students, or problematized by students or teachers, and therefore oriented to as explainable, remediable, or improvable. Learnables are introduced in planned or less planned classroom activities, either in passing, while continuing the current main activity, or in sidesequences. In these activities, teachers and students not only talk, but also use other embodied resources (e.g. pointing) or available artifacts (e.g. worksheets) to highlight linguistic learnables. Teachers and students use these resources for achieving and maintaining intersubjectivity as well as contributing learnables to the interactivities. Through manifest embodied practices, abstract linguistic learnables become objectified, and knowledge about them gets organized in and through joint co-operative activities.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling är en empirisk, kvalitativ studie om uppkomsten av s.k. ”learnables” i svenska som andraspråksutbildning. Studien antar ett dialogiskt och praxeologiskt perspektiv, och analysen baseras på video-inspelade lärare-elevinteraktiviteter i klassrummet. ”Learnables” utgörs av språkliga objekt eller konstruktioner, som hanteras som obekanta av elever, eller som problematiseras av elever eller lärare, och därför orienteras emot som objekt som kan förklaras, korrigeras eller förbättras. ”Learnables” kan uppstå i planerade eller mindre planerade klarssrumsaktiviteter, antingen i förbigående, samtidigt som huvudaktiviteten fortsätter utan avbrott, eller i sidosekvenser. I dessa aktiviteter använder lärare och elever inte bara talspråk, utan även andra kroppsliga resurser (t.ex. pekningar) eller tillgängliga artefakter (t.ex. papper) för att fokusera på språkliga ”learnables”. Lärare och elever använder dessa medel för att uppnå och bibehålla intersubjektivitet, samt för att bidra med ”learnables” till interaktiviteterna. Genom konkreta kroppsliga metoder blir abstrakta, språkliga ”learnables” objektifierade och kunskapen om dem organiseras i och genom deltagarnas koordinerade handlingar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 102 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 610Studies in Language and Culture, ISSN 1403-2570 ; 24
Keyword [en]
Learnables, Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, Dialogism, Second language learning, Multimodal interaction analysis, Gestures, Embodied actions, Classroom discourse, Swedish as a second language, Lärande, Etnometodologi, Samtalsanalys, Dialogism, Andraspråksinlärning, Multimodal interaktionsanalys, Gester, Förkroppsligade handlingar, Klassrumsdiskurs, Svenska som andraspråk
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104920DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-104920ISBN: 978-91-7519-387-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-104920DiVA: diva2:700086
Public defence
2014-03-28, Key 1, House Key, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-03-03 Created: 2014-03-03 Last updated: 2015-02-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Emergent learnables in second language classroom interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergent learnables in second language classroom interaction
2012 (English)In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 1, no 3-4, 193-207 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper studies how unplanned learnablesemerge in classroom interaction. A learnableis defined as whatever is interactively established as relevant and developed to become a shared pedagogical focus. A learnable can thus be related to any social practice. In the context that we are studying, a Swedish as a second language classroom, we show how interactive processes constructing something as a learnable may originate not only in the use of an unknown Swedish word whose meaning is then asked for (which amounts to a verbal source for a learnable), but also in an unknown name for an object (a material source for a learnable) or an unknown meaning of a gesture (a gestural source for a learnable). These last two sources have not been much described in the existing literature on objects of learning. Through detailed analyses of video recorded classroom interaction, focusing on the ways in which participants gradually accomplish learnables, we show how learnables can arise, step by step, in and for the relevant needs of an emergent learning project that may be quite different from the teacher's pedagogical agenda.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
National Category
Pedagogical Work Learning Social Anthropology General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86980 (URN)10.1016/j.lcsi.2012.08.004 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-01-11 Created: 2013-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Finger dialogue. The embodied accomplishment of learnables in instructing grammar on a worksheet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finger dialogue. The embodied accomplishment of learnables in instructing grammar on a worksheet
2014 (English)In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 64, 35-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is about embodied and endogenous grammar instruction on worksheets in teaching Swedish as a second language. It is demonstrated how an ‘awareness’ to produce a linguistic construct ‘grammatically correct’ is co-achieved by the teacher and the student. To see and understand the grammatical features of the words, an interactive instructional sequence is initiated by the teacher. This interactive scaffolding between the teacher and the student, to use meta-talk and to talk about abstract grammar, requires some concrete referents on a surface jointly attended to, and which are seen, pointed to and talked about. It is shown in detail how the interactional business of the interchange is dependent upon a constant integration of talk, gesture and orientation to the written grammatical construct on a sheet of paper. Teaching grammar is, thus, done through the objectification of quite abstract linguistic units and categories, and the transposition of the abstraction onto tangible and visible objects on the paper. Therefore, the result of the organization of order in instruction is a moment-by-moment sense-making, including accounting for how to understand a grammatical phrase, and the rationale behind the relations of the grammatical constructs, and, also, transforming the organization of knowledge. This study shows that foregrounding grammatical learnables on a paper are actualized by the mobilization of diverse semiotic resources resulting in seeing, understanding and reaching an instructed vision (cf. Goodwin, 1994) as the progressive achievement of observable and reportable embodied actions (Garfinkel, 1967, 2002). Grammatical learnables are, therefore, the procedural outcome of the hands-on practices as mutually achieved embodied accomplishments.

Keyword
Instructed vision, Instructing grammar, Interactive scaffolding, Pointing gestures, Conversation analysis, Ethnomethodology, Multimodal interaction analysis
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104917 (URN)10.1016/j.pragma.2014.01.003 (DOI)000335281100003 ()
Available from: 2014-03-03 Created: 2014-03-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Matching gestures: Teachers’ repetitions of students’ gestures in second language learning classrooms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Matching gestures: Teachers’ repetitions of students’ gestures in second language learning classrooms
2015 (English)In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 76, no 1, 30-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is about teachers’ responsive matching gestures in small instructing/learning projects in Swedish as a second language classes. Matching gestures are those gestures that are similar, if not identical, to those in the prior turns-at-talk. The focus of this study is on the repeated gestures, which are used, among other practical purposes, as teaching devices. They are examined in different sequence types such as correction, reformulation and explanation sequences. The data used for this study is a collection of excerpts extracted from the video recordings of teacher-student conversations. An ethnomethodological / conversation analytic framework is adapted for examining the phenomenon. The multimodal analysis of the excerpts shows that matching gestures in language learning situations have a double function. They are used for maintaining and sustaining intersubjectivity, and also for constructing teachable moments as well as learning opportunities. They are used as tying devices to connect teachers’ actions to the students’ prior actions, and are resources for the display of interactive coengagements and strong co-participations. Moreover, matching gestures are used as teaching devices indicating lapses in the competence of the students demonstrated in their verbal productions. The teachers employ matching gestures along with some  verbal affiliates, when the matching gestures are crucial parts of the teachers’ contributions foregrounding the verbal forms as substitutes or remedial proposal for (enhancing) the students’ utterances. That is, matching gestures are used in second language learning situations for proffering learnables through highlighting an alternative way of telling and exhibiting in that language.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Conversation Analysis, Ethnomethodology, Multimodal interaction analysis, Matching gestures, Second language learning, Students’ gestures, Teachers’ responses, Jämförande språkvetenskap och lingvistik Tvärvetenskapliga studier Lärande
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104918 (URN)10.1016/j.pragma.2014.11.006 (DOI)000349268900003 ()
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-03-03 Created: 2014-03-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. The intersubjective objectivity of learnables: Theoretical underpinnings of praxeological and dialogical research on opportunities for learning in teacher-student interactivities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The intersubjective objectivity of learnables: Theoretical underpinnings of praxeological and dialogical research on opportunities for learning in teacher-student interactivities
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The question that this article is concerned with is the following: When training new members of a community, for example, in novice-professional, trainer-trainee, or teacher-student activities, what is it that is being learned? What is it that is offered as something to learn, and how do teachers and students make sense of things as learnables? If one assumes that the issue of learning is always the issue of learning something, this article is about that something, and the resources and consequences of its emergence and existence in learning activities. I shall use the term ‘learnable’ about evolving or emergent objects of learning in social activities. Based on the phenomenological-sociological view on intersubjectivity developed by Husserl (1983, 1989; see also Schutz, 1932/1967, 1975), I will argue for a praxeological (Garfinkel & Sacks, 1970/1986) and dialogical (Bakhtin 1981, 1986; Linell, 2009) investigation of learnables as objects of any sort, whose objective reality is accomplished in the social activity at hand. In language learning classroom interactivities, that are this article’s concern, the phenomena we are talking about are  linguistic expressions, their forms, and their functions. It will be argued that their objective reality is an accomplished reality, and their rationale is an achievable phenomenon in social activities.

Keyword
Phenomenology, Dialogical theory, Conversation Analysis, Ethnomethodology, Multimodal interaction, Learnables, Language learning
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104919 (URN)
Available from: 2014-03-03 Created: 2014-03-03 Last updated: 2015-02-02Bibliographically approved

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Majlesi, Ali Reza

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