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Representing Future Situations of Service: Prototyping in Service Design
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. (IxS)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3547-6792
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Representationer av Framtida Tjänster : Prototypande i Tjänstedesign (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes prototyping in service design through the theoretical lens of situated cognition. The research questions are what a service prototype is, what the benefits of service prototyping are, and how prototypes aid in the process of designing services. Four papers are included. Paper one suggests that service prototyping should be considered from the perspectives of purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, representation, validity and author. The second paper compares research about how humans use external representations to think, with reasons for using prototypes in service design and service design techniques. The third paper compares two versions of a service prototyping technique called service walkthrough; showing that walkthroughs with pauses provided both more comments in total and more detailed feedback. The fourth paper also contributes to our understanding of how prototypes aid in designing services, by connecting the surrogate situation with the future situation of service. The paper shows how the formative service evaluation technique (F-SET) uses the theory of planned behaviour to add knowledge to service prototype evaluations about the intention to use a service in the future. Taken together the research provides a deeper understanding of what prototypes are, and their roles in service prototyping. This understanding is further deepened by a discussion about service as a design material, suggesting that from a design perspective, a service consists of service concept, process and system. The service prototype acts as a surrogate for the future situation of service. The thesis describes what the benefits of using surrogates are, and shows how prototypes enhance the ability to gain knowledge about future situations. This leads to an understanding of prototyping as a way of thinking in design.

Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen använder situerad kognition som lins för at beskriva prototypande i tjänstedesign. Genom den här beskrivningen undersöker avhandlingen vad en tjänsteprototyp är, vad fördelarna med att använda prototyper är samt hur prototypande kan användas för att designa tjänster. Fyra artiklar ingår i avhandlingen. Den första artikeln föreslår att tjänsteprototypande ska betraktas från perspektiven syfte, detaljgrad, publik, position i processen, teknik, representation, validitet och författare. Avhandlingens andra artikel jämför forskning om fördelarna med att använda externa representationer för tänkande, med anledningar för att externalisera i tjänstedesign, och tekniker för att göra externa representationer. Den tredje artikeln jämför två variationer av prototypningstekniken tjänstegenomgång, och visar att genomgångar med pauser ger mer kommentarer och mer detaljerad feedback. Den sista artikeln bidrar också till förståelsen av hur prototyper stöder design av tjänster, genom att den kopplar surrogatsituationen och den framtida tjänstesituationen. Artikeln visar hur en teknik kallad formative service evaluation technique använder theory of planned behaviour för att bidra med kunskap om att evaluera tjänster med avseende på intention att använda tjänsten i framtiden. Tillsammans bidrar forskningen till en djupare förståelse av vad prototyper är och deras roller i tjänsteprototypning. Denna förståelse fördjupas ytterligare genom en diskussion av tjänster som designmaterial och avhandlingen föreslår att arbetet att representera och designa tjänster innefattar både design av och för tjänster. Tjänsteprototyper fungerar som surrogat för den framtida tjänstesituationen. Avhandlingen beskriver föredelarna med att använda surrogat och visar hur prototyper stödjer möjligheten att skapa kunskap om framtida tjänstesituationer. Detta leder till att prototypande ses som ett sätt att tänka i design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 97 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 618
Keyword [en]
service design, situated cognition, prototyping, representations
Keyword [sv]
tjänstedesign, situerad kognition, prototypande, representationer
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105499DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-105499ISBN: 978-91-7519-343-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-105499DiVA: diva2:712357
Public defence
2014-05-06, Visionen, B-Huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova, 2007-03444Vinnova, 2007-02892
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1.
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2.
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3. Pausing or not?: Examining the Service Walkthrough Technique
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pausing or not?: Examining the Service Walkthrough Technique
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference on HCI 2014: Sand, Sea & Sky - Holiday HCI / [ed] Daniel Fitton, Matt Horton, Janet C Read, Gavin Sim, London, UK: British Computer Society (BCS), 2014, 171-176 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The scope of service design calls for holistic design techniques that represent multiple service moments. One such technique is the service walkthrough that can be used to prototype and formatively evaluate services. A service walkthrough is an enactment of several consecutive service moments. This paper informs decisions about how to set up service walkthroughs by looking at two kinds of walkthroughs in a case study: with pauses for discussion and feedback after each service moment, and without pauses where the entire service journey is walked through before comments and feedback are collected. The case study did not show any differences in the content of the feedback, but more feedback was given in the walkthroughs with pauses. The feedback in the paused walkthroughs was also more detailed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: British Computer Society (BCS), 2014
Series
Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC), ISSN 1477-9358
Keyword
Case Study, Content Analysis, Evaluation, Prototyping, Service Walkthrough
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105947 (URN)10.14236/ewic/hci2014.18 (DOI)
Conference
The 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014), Southport, UK, 9 - 12 September 2014
Note

At the time of thesis defense the article was in status Manuscript

Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
4. Formative Evaluation of IT-based Services: A Case Study of a Meal Planning Service
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formative Evaluation of IT-based Services: A Case Study of a Meal Planning Service
2014 (English)In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 26, no 6, 540-556 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To evaluate and develop a service supported by an IT (information technology) system the intentionto use the future service should be in focus. The technology acceptance model (TAM) and the theoryof planned behaviour (TPB) can both provide knowledge about users’ intention to use a service,making them good models to base formative decisions on. Unlike TAM, TPB is concerned withspecific information related to the service context, and provide knowledge about what makes ITuseable.We used an adapted version of the TPB as the foundation for a formative service evaluationtechnique called F-SET.We applied the F-SET to a case where two subsequent versions of a serviceprototype were evaluated. The first prototype was a description of the service supported by Hi-Fidesign sketches showing what a web-based meal planning tool could look like. The second prototypeconsisted of both service processes and the web-based meal planning tool.To find relevant factors thatinfluence future use of such a service, a survey of 28 informants was conducted with the first prototype.The second prototype involved five families who used the service for two weeks.The feedback providedby the families, based on the factors identified in the pre-test, influenced the future direction of theservice development. Feedback from the informants was distributed between the service and the ITsystem, and the most common factors that influence the intention to use the service were time, price,usefulness and availability. Feedback included both positive and negative comments, as well as bugsand suggestions for improvements.We discuss potential improvements and what kind of informationto expect from the different constructs of the TPB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2014
Keyword
web services, electronic commerce, software prototyping, HCI design and evaluation methods, empirical studies in HCI
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105489 (URN)10.1093/iwc/iwt052 (DOI)000344604900003 ()
Funder
VINNOVA, 2010-02683
Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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