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Grounding Emotion Appraisal in Autonomous Humanoids
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The work presented in this dissertation investigates the problem for resource management of autonomous robots. Acting under the constraint of limited resources is a necessity for every robot which should perform tasks independent of human control. Some of the most important variables and performance criteria for adaptive behavior under resource constraints are discussed. Concepts like autonomy, self-sufficiency, energy dynamics, work utility, effort of action, and optimal task selection are defined and analyzed as the emphasis is on the resource balance in interaction with a human. The primary resource for every robot is its energy. In addition to the regulation of its “energy homeostasis”, a robot should perform its designer’s tasks with the required level of efficiency. A service robot residing in a human-centered environment should perform some social tasks like cleaning, helping elderly people or delivering goods. Maintaining a proper quality of work and, at the same time, not running out of energy represents a basic two-resource problem which was used as a test-bed scenario in the thesis. Safety is an important aspect of any human-robot interaction. Thus, a new three – resource problem (energy, work quality, safety) is presented and also used for the experimental investigations in the thesis.

The main contribution of the thesis is developing an affective cognitive architecture. The architecture uses top-down ethological models of action selection. The action selection mechanisms are nested into a model of human affect based on appraisal theory of emotion. The arousal component of the architecture is grounded into electrical energy processes in the robotic body and is modulating the effort of movement. The provided arousal mechanism has an important functional role for the adaptability of the robot in the proposed two- and three resource scenarios. These investigations are part of a more general goal of grounding highlevel emotion substrates - Pleasure Arousal Dominance emotion space in homeostatic processes in humanoid robots. The development of the architecture took inspiration from several computation architectures of emotion in robotics, which are analyzed in the thesis.

Sustainability of the basic cycles of the essential variables of a robotic system is chosen as a basic performance measure for validating the emotion components of the architecture and the grounding process. Several experiments are performed with two humanoid robots – iCub and NAO showing the role of task selection mechanism and arousal component of the architecture for the robot’s self-sufficiency and adaptability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 36 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1657
National Category
Computer and Information Science Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105344DOI: 10.3384/lic.diva-105344ISBN: 978-91-7519-336-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-105344DiVA: diva2:712598
Presentation
2014-05-14, Alan Turing, hus E, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, G.A. 235065
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-03-18 Last updated: 2014-04-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Modelling Embodied Appraisal in Humanoids: Grounding PAD space for Augmented Autonomy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling Embodied Appraisal in Humanoids: Grounding PAD space for Augmented Autonomy
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Standards in Emotion Modeling, 2011, 2011Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A computational emotion architecture is presented which grounds an aspect of an appraisal theoretic architecture in energy related processes. The incorporation of an energy constraint on emotional-cognitive behaviour allows greater potential for autonomous agency when implemented on a physical (NAO) robot platform. In this paper we present an algorithm that enables metabolic grounding of the arousal component of the PAD emotion space used in the architecture. We describe an exemplar problem that abstracts variables and performance criteria relevant to service robotics applications. Future work on further integration based on neurobiological grounding is discussed as well as means by which the exemplar scenario may be scaled up to more realistic service robotics based scenarios.

Keyword
Appraisal theory, homeostasis, autonomy, emotions, humanoids, robots, WASABI, virtual agents
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105948 (URN)
Conference
1st Workshop on Standards in Emotion Modeling 2011, 15-19 August, Leiden, The Netherlands
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2014-04-22Bibliographically approved
2. The role of arousal in two-resource problem tasks for humanoid service robots
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of arousal in two-resource problem tasks for humanoid service robots
2013 (English)In: IEEE RO-MAN 2013, IEEE , 2013, 62-69 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A computational architecture of emotion is presented which grounds a component of an appraisal cognitive model into the homeostatic processes of a humanoid robot. The focus of the present work entails a `grounding' of the arousal component of the Pleasure Arousal Dominance emotion space into the electrical energy processes of an iCub robot. Key variables and performance criteria for robotic energy autonomous behavior in interaction with human are discussed. We show that our bio-inspired affective architecture offers viable basic cycles in exemplar “two-resource problem” testbed scenarios for a real iCub robot. The expression of the robot's emotional state and its role for the efficient interaction in the proposed two-resource problem task is discussed and experimental designs are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2013
Series
IEEE RO-MAN Proceedings, ISSN 1944-9445
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105950 (URN)10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628532 (DOI)978-1-4799-0509-6 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 26-29 August 2013, Gyeongju, Korea
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2014-04-22Bibliographically approved
3. The role of arousal in embodying the cueXdeficit model in multi-resource human robot interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of arousal in embodying the cueXdeficit model in multi-resource human robot interaction
2013 (English)In: Advances in Artificial Life, ECAL 2013, Proceedings of the Twelfth European Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living System / [ed] Pietro Liò, Orazio Miglino, Giuseppe Nicosia, Stefano Nolfi and Mario Pavone, 2013, 19-26 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper is investigated the problem of managing limited resources in human-robot interaction with a computational architecture of emotion. The architecture is based on the appraisal theory of affect and an ethological motivational model of task selection. Key variables and performance criteria for robotic energy autonomous behaviour in interaction with humans are discussed. The role of arousal for modulating effort of movement is explored. It is shown that the architecture can manage task selection and the effort of the movement and offers sustainable basic-cycles in exemplar "two-resource problem" test-bed scenarios for an iCub robot. An extension of the architecture with a third "resource"—safety—is presented and how the architecture is able to solve the new "three-resource" problem is demonstrated.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105952 (URN)10.7551/978-0-262-31709-2-ch004 (DOI)
Conference
Twelfth European Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living System, 2-6 September 2013, Tarmina, Italy
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2014-04-22Bibliographically approved

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Kiryazov, Kiril

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