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Sub-glass transition annealing enhances polymer solar cell performance
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Chalmers, Sweden .
Chalmers, Sweden .
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 2, no 17, 6146-6152 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal annealing of non-crystalline polymer: fullerene blends typically results in a drastic decrease in solar cell performance. In particular aggressive annealing above the glass transition temperature results in a detrimental coarsening of the blend nanostructure. We demonstrate that mild annealing below the glass transition temperature is a viable avenue to control the nanostructure of a non-crystalline thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer: fullerene blend. Direct imaging methods indicate that coarsening of the blend nanostructure can be avoided. However, a combination of absorption and luminescence spectroscopy reveals that local changes in the polymer conformation as well as limited fullerene aggregation are permitted to occur. As a result, we are able to optimise the solar cell performance evenly across different positions of the coated area, which is a necessary criterion for large-scale, high throughput production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014. Vol. 2, no 17, 6146-6152 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106302DOI: 10.1039/c3ta14165aISI: 000333580700024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-106302DiVA: diva2:715706
Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2015-12-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Optoelectrical Imaging Methods for Organic Photovoltaic Materials and Moduls
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optoelectrical Imaging Methods for Organic Photovoltaic Materials and Moduls
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To achieve a high living standard for all people on Earth access to low cost energy is essential. The massive burning of fossil fuels must be drastically reduced if we are to avoid large changes of our climate. Solar cells are both technologically mature and have the potential to meet the huge demand for renewable energy in many countries. The prices for silicon solar cells have decreased rapidly during the course of this thesis and are now in grid parity in many countries.

However, the potential for even lower energy costs has driven the research on polymer solar cells, a class of thin film solar cells. Polymer solar cells can be produced by roll to roll printing which potentially enables truly low cost solar cells. However, much research and development remain to reach that target.

Polymer solar cells consist of a semiconducting composite material sandwiched between two electrodes, of which one is transparent, to let the light energy in to the semiconductor where it is converted to electric energy. The semiconductor comprise an intimate blend of polymer and fullerenes, where the nanostructure of this blend is crucial for the photo current extraction.

To reach higher solar cell performance the dominating strategy is development and fine tuning of new polymers. To estimate their potential as solar cell materials their optical response have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Furthermore, optical simulations have been performed where the direction dependency of the optical response of the transparent electrode material PEDOT:PSS have been accounted for. The simulations show reduced electrode losses for light incident at large oblique angles.

Moreover, we have shown that a gentle annealing of the active layer induces a local conformational changes of an amorphous polymer that is beneficial for solar cell performance. The active layer is deposited from solution where the drying kinetics determine the final nanostructure. We have shown that using in-situ photoluminescence phase separation can be detected during the drying process while a reflectance method have been developed to image lateral variations of solvent evaporation rate.

Imaging methods are important tools to detect performance variations over the solar cell area. For this purpose an intermodulation based photo current imaging method have been developed to qualitatively differentiate the major photo current loss mechanisms. In addition, a 1D LED-array photo current imaging method have been developed and verified for high speed in-line characterization of printed organic solar modules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 60 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1712
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123035 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-123035 (DOI)978-91-7685-923-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-12-17, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

The corrections in the published errata list are implemented in the electronic version.

Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2016-01-14Bibliographically approved

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Bergqvist, JonasMa, ZaifeiTang, ZhengTress, WolfgangInganäs, Olle

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