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Experimental and numerical investigations of a ventilation strategy – impinging jet ventilation for an office environment
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A well-functioning, energy-efficient ventilation system is of vital importance to offices, not only to provide the kind of comfortable, healthy indoor environment necessary for the well-being and productive work performance of occupants, but also to reduce energy use in buildings and the associated impact of CO2 emissions on the environment. To achieve these goals impinging jet ventilation has been developed as an innovative ventilation concept.

In an impinging jet ventilation system, a high momentum of air jet is discharged downwards, strikes the floor and spreads over it, thus distributing the fresh air along the floor in the form of a very thin shear layer. This system retains advantages of mixing and stratification from conventional air distribution methods, while capable of overcoming their shortcomings.

The aim of this thesis is to reach a thorough understanding of impinging jet ventilation for providing a good thermal environment for an office, by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) supported by detailed measurements. The full-field measurements were carried out in two test rooms located in a large enclosure giving relatively stable climate conditions. This study has been divided into three parts where the first focuses on validation of numerical investigations against measurements, the second addresses impacts of a number of design parameters on the impinging jet flow field and thermal comfort level, and the third compares ventilation performance of the impinging jet supply device with other air supply devices intended for mixing, wall confluent jets and displacement ventilation, under specific room conditions.

In the first part, velocity and temperature distributions of the impinging jet flow field predicted by different turbulence models are compared with detailed measurements. Results from the non-isothermal validation studies show that the accuracy of the simulation results is to a great extent dependent on the complexity of the turbulence models, due to complicated flow phenomena related to jet impingement, such as recirculation, curvature and instability. The v2-f turbulence model shows the best performance with measurements, which is slightly better than the SST k-ω model but much better than the RNG k-ε model. The difference is assumed to be essentially related to the magnitude of turbulent kinetic energy predicted in the vicinity of the stagnation region. Results from the isothermal study show that both the SST k-ω and RNG k-ε models predict similar wall jet behaviours of the impinging jet flow.

In the second part, three sets of parametric studies were carried out by using validated CFD models. The first parametric study shows that the geometry of the air supply system has the most significant impact on the flow field. The rectangular air supply device, especially the one with larger aspect ratio, provides a longer penetration distance to the room, which is suitable for industrial ventilation. The second study reveals that the interaction effect of cooling ceiling, heat sources and impinging jet ventilation results in complex flow phenomena but with a notable feature of air circulation, which consequently decreases thermal stratification in the room and increases draught discomfort at the foot level. The third study demonstrates the advantage of using response surface methodology to study simultaneous effects on changes in four parameters, i.e. shape of air supply device, jet discharge height, supply airflow rate and supply air temperature. Analysis of the flow field reveals that at a low discharge height, the shape of air supply device has a major impact on the flow pattern in the vicinity of the supply device. Correlations between the studied parameters and local thermal discomfort indices were derived. Supply airflow rates and temperatures are shown to be the most important parameter for draught and stratification discomfort, respectively.

In the third part, the impinging jet supply device was shown to provide a better overall performance than other air supply devices used for mixing, wall confluent jets and displacement ventilation, with respect to thermal comfort, heat removal effectiveness, air exchange efficiency and energy-saving potential related to fan power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 92 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1606
Keyword [en]
Impinging jet ventilation, room air distribution, thermal comfort, ventilation performance, turbulence modelling, CFD
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106483DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-106483ISBN: 978-91-7519-299-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-106483DiVA: diva2:717504
Public defence
2014-06-12, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Formas
Available from: 2014-05-15 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2014-05-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Numerical investigation of the flow behavior of an isothermal impinging jet in a room
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical investigation of the flow behavior of an isothermal impinging jet in a room
2012 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 49, 154-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impinging jet concept has been proposed as a new ventilation strategy for use in office and industrial buildings. The present paper reports the mean flow field behavior of an isothermal turbulent impinging jet in a room. The detailed experimental study is carried out to validate the numerical simulations, and the predictions are performed by means of the RNG k-ε and SST k-ω model. The comparisons between the predictive results and the experimental data reveal that both of the tested turbulence models are capable of capturing the main qualitative flow features satisfactorily. It is found that the predictions from the RNG k-ε model predicts slightly better of the maximum velocity decay as jet approaching the floor, while the SST k-ω model accords slightly better in the region close to the impingement zone.

Another important perspective of this study is to investigate the influence of different flow and configuration parameters such as jet discharge height, diffuser geometry, supply airflow rate and confinement from the surrounding environment on the impinging jet flow field with the validated model. The obtained data are presented in terms of the jet dimensionless velocity distribution, maximum velocity decay and spreading rate along the centerline of the floor. The comparative results demonstrate that all the investigated parameters have certain effects on the studied flow features, and the diffuser geometry is found to have the most appreciable impact, while the supply airflow rate is found to have marginal influence within the moderate flow range. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
Impinging jet ventilation, Measurement, Numerical simulation, Parametric study
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71471 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.09.027 (DOI)000298200600016 ()
Note
Funding agencies|KK Foundation||Fresh Air AB||Formas||Ny Kraft Sverige AB||University of Gavle||Linkoping University||Available from: 2011-10-19 Created: 2011-10-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08
2. Comparing k-ε Models On Predictions Of An Impinging Jet For Ventilation Of An Office Room
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing k-ε Models On Predictions Of An Impinging Jet For Ventilation Of An Office Room
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of Roomvent 2011, 11th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms 19 - 22 June 2011 Torendheim, Norway, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study is to compare the performance of different k-ε models, i.e. the Standard k-ε, the Renormalization Group (RNG) k-ε, and the Realizable k-ε, with a two-layer model for the prediction of the mean velocity field and the temperature pattern from a newly designed impinging jet supply device for ventilation of an office room. The numerical predictions are validated against the detailed experimental measurements. The experimental investigation was performed in a test room with the dimensions 4.2×3.6×2.5 m, as a mock-up of a single-person office. Detailed velocity and temperature field measurements including the comfort zone and the jet developing region along the floor were carried out. The in-house made single-sensor hot-wire probe and the thermocouple are measuring instruments used to investigate the mean velocity, turbulence intensity and temperature. The boundary conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study are obtained from the same set-up measurement. The results mainly consist of the flow field presentation, i.e., the velocity and temperature profiles in the comfort zone and the jet developing region along the floor. The comparisons between the results from the three versions of the k-ε models and measurements show generally satisfactory agreement, and better consistency is observed at the free jet region and the wall jet region that farther from the impingement zone. Among the three tested turbulence models, RNG shows the best overall performance.

Keyword
CFD, Impinging jet ventilation, Turbulence model, Wall jet, Measurement
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71470 (URN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms 19 - 22 June 2011 Torendheim, Norway
Available from: 2011-10-19 Created: 2011-10-19 Last updated: 2014-05-19
3. Investigation on the flow and thermal behavior of impinging jet ventilation systems in an office with different heat loads
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation on the flow and thermal behavior of impinging jet ventilation systems in an office with different heat loads
2013 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 59, 127-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the flow and temperature field within an office using impinging jet ventilation (IJV) under different heat loads ranging from 17 to 65 W per square meter floor area. The measurement was carried out in a full-scale test room to verify the reliability of three turbulence models, i.e., the RNG k-epsilon, SST k-omega and (nu(2)) over bar - f models. It is found that all the tested models show good agreements with measurements, while the (nu(2)) over bar - f model shows the best performance, especially on the overall temperature prediction. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe (nu(2)) over bar - f model is used further to investigate a number of important factors influencing the performance of the IJV. The considered parameters are: cooling effect of chilled ceiling, external heat load as well as its position, number of occupants and supplied air conditions. The interaction effect of chilled ceiling and heat sources results in a complex flow phenomenon but with a notable feature of air circulation. The appearance and strength of the air circulation mainly depends on the external heat load on window and number of occupants. It is found that with higher external heat load on window (384 W and 526 W), the air circulation has a strong tendency towards the side wall in the opposite direction to occupant, while with lower power on window (200 W) the air circulation has a strong tendency in the center of the room and extends to a larger area. When two occupants are present, two swirling zones are formed in the upper region. The effects of air circulation consequently alter the temperature field and the level of local thermal comfort.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Impinging jet ventilation, Chilled ceiling, Heat sources, Air movement, Turbulence models, Measurement
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89812 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.08.014 (DOI)000314371900014 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|KM Foundation|2007/0289|Formas|242-2008-835|Fresh Air AB||Kraft and Kultur AB||University of Gavle|7216-7438-181-81|Linkoping University||

Available from: 2013-03-07 Created: 2013-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Computational investigation on the factors influencing thermal comfort for impinging jet ventilation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computational investigation on the factors influencing thermal comfort for impinging jet ventilation
2013 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 66, 29-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Impinging jet ventilation (IJV) has been proposed to achieve an effective ventilation of an occupied zone in office and industrial buildings. For IJV systems, draught discomfort is the issue of most concern since it supplies cooled air directly to the occupied zone. This study investigated a number of factors influencing draught discomfort and temperature stratification in an office environment equipped with IJV. The factors considered were: shape of air supply device, discharge height, supply airflow rate and supply air temperature. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to identify the level of the significance of the parameters studied, as well as to develop the predictive models for the local thermal discomfort. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was employed to perform a set of required studies, and each simulation condition was determined by the Box – Behnken design (BBD) method. The results indicated that at a low discharge height, the shape of air supply device had a major impact on the flow pattern in the vicinity of the supply device because of the footprint from impinging jet, which consequently affected the draught risk level in the occupied zone. A square-shaped air supply device was found to result in lower overall draught discomfort than rectangular and semi-elliptic shapes. The RSM analysis revealed that the supply airflow rate had a significant impact on the draught discomfort, while the shape of air supply device and discharge height had moderate effects. The temperature stratification in the occupied zone was mostly influenced by the supply air temperature within the range studied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Draught discomfort, Temperature stratification, Impinging jet ventilation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92744 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.04.018 (DOI)000321423500004 ()
Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06
5. Comparisons of ventilation performance of different air supply devicesin in an office environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparisons of ventilation performance of different air supply devicesin in an office environment
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to compare ventilation performance of four different air supply devices in an office environment with respect to thermal comfort, ventilation efficiency and energy-saving potential, by performing numerical simulations. The devices have the acronyms: Mixing supply device (MSD), Wall confluent jets supply device (WCJSD), Impinging jet supply device (IJSD) and Displacement supply device (DSD). Comparisons were made under identical set-up conditions, as well as at the same occupied zone temperature of about 24.2°C achieved by adding different heat loads and using different air-flow rates. Energy-saving potential was addressed based on the air-flow rate and the related fan power required for obtaining a similar occupied zone temperature for each device.

 

Results showed that the IJSD could provide an acceptable thermal environment while removing excess heat more efficiently than the MSD, as it combined the positive effects of both mixing and stratification principles. This benefit also meant that this device required less fan power than the MSD for obtaining equivalent occupant zone temperature. The WCJSD studied in this paper behaved somewhat like the MSD, but caused higher draught discomfort at ankle level because of very high supply velocities, which was might due to small nozzle diameter of the supply device. Further studies are required for the WCJSD to make these conclusions applicable for general conditions. The DSD showed a superior performance on heat removal, air exchange efficiency and energy saving to all other devices, but it had difficulties in providing acceptable vertical temperature gradient between the ankle and head levels for a standing person.

Keyword
Ventilation performance, air supply devices, thermal comfort, energy-saving
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106491 (URN)
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2014-05-15

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