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With district heating toward a sustainable future: System studies of district heating and cooling that interact with power, transport and industrial sectors
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to identify measures which should be taken in DH systems (DHSs) in order to contribute to the development of the DHSs and other energy systems (especially transport, industrial and power sectors) toward sustainability.

Four business strategies were analysed: delivering excess heat from biofuel production industry to DHSs, conversion of industrial processes to DH, integration of biofuel production in DHSs and integration of DHdriven absorption cooling technology in DHSs. Delivering excess heat from biofuel production industry to DHSs was analysed with a focus on the biofuel production costs for four biofuel production technologies. Integration of biofuel production and integration of DH-driven absorption cooling technology in DHSs were analysed with a focus on Stockholm’s DHS, using an optimisation model framework called MODEST. When the conversion of industrial processes to DH was analysed, DHSs and industrial companies in Västra Götaland, Östergötland and Jönköping counties were used as case studies; a method for heat load analysis called MeHLA was used to analyse the effects on the local DHSs.

The results showed that when considering biomass an unlimited resource, by applying the abovementioned business strategies DH has a potential to reduce global fossil fuel consumption and global GHG emissions associated with power, industrial and transport sectors.

DH producers may contribute to the sustainable development of the  transport sector by buying excess heat from the biofuel production industry. This business strategy results in lower biofuel production costs, which promotes development of biofuel production technologies that are not yet commercial. Moreover, introduction of large-scale biofuel production into local DHSs enables development of local biofuel supply chains; this may facilitate the introduction of biofuel in the local transport sectors and subsequently decrease gasoline and fossil diesel use. Conversion of industrial processes from fossil fuels and electricity to DH is a business strategy which would make the industry less dependent on fossil fuels and fossil fuelbased electricity. DH may also contribute to the sustainable development of the industry by buying waste heat from industrial processes, since this strategy increases the total energy efficiency of the industrial processes and reduces production costs. Furthermore, DH has a possibility to reduce fossil fuel consumption and subsequently GHG emissions in the power sector by producing electricity in biomass- or waste-fuelled CHP plants.

When the marginal electricity is associated with high GHG emissions (e.g. when it is produced in coal-fired condensing power (CCP)) plants, the reduction of the marginal electricity production (due to the conversion of industrial processes from electricity to DH and due to the conversion of compression cooling to DHdriven absorption cooling) results in higher environmental benefits. On the other hand, the introduction of biofuel production into DHSs becomes less attractive from an environmental viewpoint, because the investments in biofuel production instead of in CHP production lead to lower electricity production in the DHSs. The increased DH use in industry and introduction of the biofuel production and DH-driven absorption cooling production into the DHSs lead to increased biomass use in the DHSs. Because of this, if biomass is considered a limited resource, the environmental benefits of applying these business strategies are lower or non-existent.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna avhandling är att identifiera åtgärder som bör vidtas i FJV-system (FJVS) för att bidra till en hållbar utveckling av FJV och andra relaterade energisystem som transport, industri- och energisektorn.

Fyra affärsstrategier är analyserade: att leverera överskottsvärme från produktion av biobränsle för transportsektorn, konvertering av industriella processer till FJV, integration av biobränsleproduktion för transportsektorn i FJVS och integration av FJV-driven absorptionskylteknik i FJVS. Att leverera överskottsvärme från produktion av biobränsle till transportsektorn analyserades med fokus på kostnader för fyra olika produktionstekniker. Integration av biobränsleproduktion till transportsektorn och integration av FJV-driven absorptionskylteknik i FJVS analyserades på Stockholms FJVS med optimeringsmodellen MODEST. När konvertering av industriella processer till FJV analyserades, användes FJVS och industriföretag i Västra Götaland, Östergötlands och Jönköpings län som fallstudier. Metoden MeHLA som används för analys av värmebelastning tillämpades för att analysera effekterna på de lokala FJVS.

Resultaten från studierna visar att när biomassa anses vara en obegränsad resurs har FJV en potential att minska den globala konsumtionen av fossila bränslen och de globala utsläppen av växthusgaser som förknippas med transport-, industri- och energisektorn, for samtliga analyserade affärsstrategierna.

FJV producenter kan bidra till en hållbar utveckling av transportsektorn genom användningen av överskottsvärme från produktion av transportbiobränsle. Den analyserade affärsstrategin ger lägre produktionskostnader för transportbiobränsle vilket främjar utvecklingen av produktionsteknik som ännu inte är kommersiell. Dessutom möjliggörs utveckling av lokala försörjningskedjor av transportbiobränsle på grund av den storskaliga produktionen av transportbiobränsle i lokala FJVS. Detta kan sedan underlätta införandet av transportbiobränsle i lokala transporter och även minska användningen av bensin och fossil diesel. Konvertering av industriella processer från fossila bränslen och el till FJV är en affärsstrategi som skulle göra FJV-branschen mindre beroende av fossila bränslen. Att använda spillvärme från industriprocesser ökar den totala energieffektiviteten i de industriella processerna och minskar produktionskostnaderna. Genom att dessutom öka FJV-användningen inom industriella produktionsprocesser och genom att konvertera eldriven kompressionskyla till FJV driven komfortabsorptionskyla, minskar säsongsvariationerna av FJV lasten, vilket leder till ett bättre utnyttjande av produktionsanläggningar för FJV. Om produktionsanläggningarna för baslast i FJVS är kraftvärmeverk, leder dessa två affärsstrategier till en ökad elproduktion i FJVS.

När marginalproducerad el förknippas med höga utsläpp av växthusgaser (t.ex. när det produceras i koleldade kondenskraftverk), resulterar en minskning av den marginella elproduktionen (på grund av konvertering av industriella processer från el till FJV och på grund av konvertering eldriven kompressionskyla till FJV-driven absorptionkyla) i minskade globala emissioner av växthusgas. Om man däremot tittar på införandet av produktion av transportbiobränsle i FJVS är denna affärsstrategi mindre attraktiv ur ett miljöperspektiv. Orsaken till detta är att investering i produktion av transportbiobränsle istället för i kraftvärmeproduktion, leder till minskad elproduktion i FJVS. Den ökade FJV-användningen inom industrin och införandet av produktion av biobränsle för transportsektorn och FJV driven absorptionskylproduktion i FJVS leder till en ökad användning av biomassa i FJVS. När biomassa anses vara en begränsad resurs, är de miljömässiga fördelarna med att tillämpa dessa affärsstrategier relativt låga eller till och med obefintliga.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 109 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1601
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106899DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-106899ISBN: 978-91-7519-314-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-106899DiVA: diva2:719334
Public defence
2014-06-13, ACAS, hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2015-11-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. District heating and ethanol production through polygeneration in Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>District heating and ethanol production through polygeneration in Stockholm
2012 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 91, no 1, 214-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ethanol can be produced with little impact on the environment through the use of polygeneration technology. This paper evaluates the potential of integrating a lignocellulosic ethanol plant into a district heating system by case study; the plant has an ethanol capacity of 95 MW with biogas. electricity and heat as by-products. Stockholms district heating system is used as the case study, but the results may be relevant also for other urban areas. The system has been studied using MODEST - an optimisation model framework. The results show that introducing the plant would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of heat production. The income from the biofuels and electricity produced would be about (sic)76 million and (sic)130 million annually, respectively, which is an increase of 70% compared to the income from the electricity produced in the system today. Assuming that the electricity produced will replace marginal electricity on the European electricity market and that the biofuel produced will replace gasoline in the transport sector, the introduction of the polygeneration plant in the district heating system would lead to a reduction of global CO(2) emissions of about 0.7 million tonnes annually.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
District heating, Polygeneration, Biofuel, Case study
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74144 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.09.030 (DOI)000298338200026 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency||

Available from: 2012-01-20 Created: 2012-01-20 Last updated: 2017-12-08
2. Introducing of absorption cooling process in CHP systems: an opportunity for reduction of global CO2 emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing of absorption cooling process in CHP systems: an opportunity for reduction of global CO2 emissions
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of ECOS 2011 - 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 2011, 3105-3116 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this research study is to examine the potential for reduction of global CO2 emissions (GECO2) by converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in Stockholm’s district cooling (DC) system and in Stockholm’s industrial sector. The analysis of the cooling production is made through optimizations in MODEST, a model framework developed for analysis of dynamic energy systems. The results show that more than 95% of the cooling demand that is currently met by compression chillers during the months from April to October should be produced by district heat (DH)-driven absorption cooling chillers in order to lower GECO2. As a consequence of this conversion, the utilization time of the combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Stockholm’s district heating (DH) system would be prolonged and at the same time the electricity used for compression cooling production would be reduced. Assuming coal condensing production as the marginal electricity production in the common electricity market and considering both the increase in electricity production and the reduction in electricity used, the potential for the reduction of GECO2 would be about 0.15 million tonnes annually. Rising cooling demand would make the introduction of absorption technology in the system even more interesting. If the comfort cooling demand in the region increases by 30%, electricity production in the system during the summer would be about 70% higher, which would lead to a reduction of GECO2 by 0.2 million tonnes annually compared with GECO2 today.

Keyword
Absorption cooling, Carbon dioxide, CHP
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106892 (URN)
Conference
ECOS 2011 - 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 4-7 July, Novi Sad, Serbia
Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2014-05-23Bibliographically approved
3. Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, 552-561 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
District heating; Biofuel; Energy cooperation; Transport sector; Greenhouse gas emissions
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103643 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.08.029 (DOI)000329595700051 ()
Available from: 2014-01-21 Created: 2014-01-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Integration of biofuel production into district heating - part I: an evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of biofuel production into district heating - part I: an evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, 176-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well.

In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced.

Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

The results also show that an increase of the discount rate from 6% to 10% does not have a significant influence on the biofuel production costs. Depending on the biofuel production plant, and on the energy market and district heating conditions, when the discount rate increases from 6% to 10%, the biofuel production costs increase within a range from 2.2% to 6.8%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
Biofuel production, Polygeneration, Energy cooperation, District heating
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106895 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.035 (DOI)000335102900020 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency||

Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Integration of biofuel production into district heating – Part II: an evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of biofuel production into district heating – Part II: an evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, 188-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biofuel production through polygeneration with heat as one of the by-products implies a possibility for cooperation between transport and district heating sectors by introducing large-scale biofuel production into district heating systems. The cooperation may have effects on both the biofuel production costs and the district heating production costs. This paper is the second part of the study that investigates those effects. The biofuel production costs evaluation, considering heat and electricity as by-products, was performed in the first part of the study. In this second part of the study, an evaluation of how such cooperation would influence the district heating production costs using Stockholm's district heating system as a case study was performed. The plants introduced in the district heating system were chosen depending on the future development of the transport sector. In order to perform sensitivity analyses of different energy market conditions, two energy market scenarios were applied.

Despite the higher revenues from the sale of by-products, due to the capital intense investments required, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system does not guarantee economic benefits. Profitability is highly dependent on the types of biofuel production plants and energy market scenarios. The results show that large-scale biogas and ethanol production may lead to a significant reduction in the district heating production costs in both energy market scenarios, especially if support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. If the total biomass capacity of the biofuel production plants introduced into the district heating system is 900 MW, the district heating production costs would be negative and the whole public transport sector and more than 50% of the private cars in the region could be run on the ethanol and biogas produced. The profitability is shown to be lower if the raw biogas that is by-produced in the biofuel production plants is used for combined and power production instead of being sold as transportation fuel; however, this strategy may still result in profitability if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. Investments in Fischer–Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production are competitive to the investments in combined and power production only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
District heating; Biofuel; Energy cooperation; Transport sector
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106897 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.042 (DOI)000335102900021 ()
Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
6. Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating
2014 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 87, 305-317 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to analyse the possibilities of converting production and support processes from electricity and fossil fuels to district heating in 83 manufacturing companies in three different Swedish counties. A tool for heat load analysis called Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) is used to explore how the conversions would affect the heat load duration curves in local district heating systems. Economic effects and impacts on global emissions of greenhouse gases are studied from a system perspective. The study has been conducted considering two different energy market conditions for the year 2030.

The results show that there is a potential for increasing industrial district heating use in all analysed counties. When comparing all three counties, the greatest potential regarding percentage is found in Jönköping, where the district heating use in the manufacturing companies could increase by nine times (from 5 GWh to 45 GWh annually). The industrial district heating use could increase by two times (from 84 GWh to 168 GWh annually) in Östergötland and by four times (from 14 GWh to 58 GWh annually) in Västra Götaland. The conversion of the industrial production processes to district heating would lead to a district heating demand curve which is less dependent on outdoor temperature. As a result, the utilization period of the combined heat and power plants would be prolonged, which would decrease district heating production costs due to the increased income from the electricity production.

In all analysed counties, the energy costs for the companies decrease after the conversions. Furthermore, the increased electricity production in the combined heat and power plants, and the decreased electricity and fossil fuel use in the industrial sector opens up a possibility for a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. The potential for the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass and on the type of the marginal electricity producers. When the marginal effects from biomass use are not considered, the greenhouse gas emissions reduction is between 10 thousand tonnes of CO2eq and 58 thousand tonnes of CO2eq per year, depending on the county and the type of marginal electricity production plants. The highest reduction is achieved in Östergötland. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating systems may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. If this assumption is included in the calculations, the conversion of the industrial processes to district heating still signify a  potential for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but this potential is considerable lower.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
District heating; Energy cooperation; Industry sector
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106898 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2014.07.025 (DOI)000343337200032 ()
Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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