Predominance of Norovirus and Sapovirus in Nicaragua after Implementation of Universal Rotavirus Vaccination
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, e0098201- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background: Despite significant reduction of rotavirus (RV) infections following implementation of RotaTeq vaccination in Nicaragua, a large burden of patients with diarrhea persists. Methods: We conducted a community-and hospital-based study of the burden of RV, norovirus (NV) and sapovirus (SV) infections as cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis (GE) among 330 children less than= 5 years of age between September 2009 and October 2010 in two major cities of Nicaragua with a RotaTeq coverage rate of 95%. Results: We found that NV, SV and RV infections altogether accounted for 45% of cases of GE. Notably, NV was found in 24% (79/330) of the children, followed by SV (17%, 57/330) and RV (8%, 25/330). The detection rate in the hospital setting was 27%, 15% and 14% for NV, SV and RV respectively, whereas in the community setting the detection rate of RV was less than 1%. Among each of the investigated viruses one particular genogroup or genotype was dominant; GII.4 (82%) for NV, GI (46%) for SV and G1P (64%) in RV. These variants were also found in higher proportions in the hospital setting compared to the community setting. The GII.4.2006 Minerva strain circulating globally since 2006 was the most common among genotyped NV in this study, with the GII.4-2010 New Orleans emerging in 2010. Conclusions: This study shows that NV has become the leading viral cause of gastroenteritis at hospital and community settings in Nicaragua after implementation of RV vaccination.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science , 2014. Vol. 9, no 5, e0098201- p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108169DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098201ISI: 000336730600097OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-108169DiVA: diva2:729569