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Psoriasin For Better or for Worse in Sickness and in Health: The Role of Psoriasin in Angiogenesis and Differentation of Epithelial Cells
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Psoriasin (S100A7), a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, is highly expressed in high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and in the benign hyper-proliferative skin disorder psoriasis. Both breast cancer and psoriasis are diseases which are characterized by hyperproliferation and a disturbed differentiation of the epithelial cells as well as a pronounced angiogenesis. The potential role of psoriasin in angiogenesis and the epithelial differentiation remain unclear.

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the cellular effects of psoriasin in angiogenesis and the differentiation processes, with special emphasis on breast cancer and psoriasis.

We found that psoriasin expression was induced in mammary epithelial cells and keratinocytes by oxidative stress. Psoriasin expression was shown to induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and several other pro-angiogenic factors in epithelial cells. Upon down-regulation of psoriasin, H2O2-induced expression of VEGF was decreased as well as the pro-angiogenic factors heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. Extracellular psoriasin contributed to the subsequent induction of proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells. The proliferative effect of psoriasin was shown to be mediated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Furthermore, psoriasin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both endothelial and epithelial cells through the action of RAGE, and contributed to the expression of the pro-angiogenic factors in endothelial cells.

The expression of psoriasin was up-regulated in mammary epithelial cells and keratinocytes in response to differentiation-inducing stimuli and was shown to be regulated by pathways involved in epithelial cell differentiation. Upon psoriasin down-regulation the shift towards a more differentiated CD24+-phenotype of mammary epithelial cells was abolished. Furthermore, the expression of the differentiation markers involucrin, desmoglein 1, transglutaminase 1 and CD24 was decreased in keratinocytes upon down-regulation of psoriasin expression. In vivo we demonstrated a gradient of psoriasin expression in the psoriatic epidermis, with intense expression in the suprabasal differentiated layers, and a similar staining pattern between psoriasin and the differentiation marker CD24 in DCIS tumors.

In conclusion, our findings describe psoriasin as a mediator in the angiogenic process and a contributor of epithelial cell differentiation. Consequently, psoriasin is possibly a contributor to the development and progression of breast cancer and psoriasis and a potential target in the treatment of these diseases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 58 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1412
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases Basic Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110031DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-110031ISBN: 978-91-7519-283-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-110031DiVA: diva2:742302
Public defence
2014-09-26, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-09-01 Created: 2014-09-01 Last updated: 2015-01-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Psoriasin (S100A7) increases the expression of ROS and VEGF and acts through RAGE to promote endothelial cell proliferation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psoriasin (S100A7) increases the expression of ROS and VEGF and acts through RAGE to promote endothelial cell proliferation
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2012 (English)In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 134, no 1, 71-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Psoriasin (S100A7), originally identified in psoriasis, is a calcium-binding protein belonging to the multigenic S100 family. In high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ, psoriasin was identified as one of the most abundant transcripts. We have previously shown that psoriasin was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the downregulation of psoriasin by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) led to the reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether psoriasin could have direct effects on endothelial cells. In this study we demonstrated that psoriasin increased VEGF expression in mammary epithelial cells. The treatment of endothelial cells with recombinant psoriasin increased proliferation comparable to that of recombinant VEGF protein. No change in proliferation was seen when endothelial cells were infected with psoriasin-expressing adenoviruses, suggesting that the proliferative effect of psoriasin was mediated by a specific receptor. Treatment with sRAGE, targeting the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), thus inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation enhanced by recombinant psoriasin. We showed that VEGF expression was not induced by hydrogen peroxide, when psoriasin was silenced by shRNA, which led to the hypothesis that psoriasin induces ROS. Indeed, psoriasin was shown to induce ROS in both endothelial and epithelial cells. Moreover, sRAGE inhibited the psoriasin-dependent generation of ROS in endothelial cells. Finally, treatment with antioxidant Bcl-2 protein abolished the effect of psoriasin on endothelial cell proliferation. Our data suggest that psoriasin expression in mammary epithelial cells leads to increased endothelial cell proliferation in a paracrine manner through RAGE. Psoriasin may therefore play a role in breast cancer progression by promoting oxidative stress response and angiogenesis.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76132 (URN)10.1007/s10549-011-1920-5 (DOI)22189627 (PubMedID)000306437500008 (Scopus ID)
Note

funding agencies|Swedish Cancer Society||Swedish Psoriasis Association||Assar Gabrielsson Foundation||Welander Foundation||Tore Nilsson Foundation||

Available from: 2012-03-28 Created: 2012-03-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07
2. Psoriasin (S100A7) contributes to stress-induced angiogenesis in psoriasis by the regulation of angiogenic factors in keratinocytes and promotion of angiogenic properties of dermal endothelial cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psoriasin (S100A7) contributes to stress-induced angiogenesis in psoriasis by the regulation of angiogenic factors in keratinocytes and promotion of angiogenic properties of dermal endothelial cells
2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The S100 protein psoriasin, S100A7, is highly expressed in psoriasis. Vascular modifications occur early in the development of psoriasis and angiogenesis is one of the key features in the pathogenesis of the disease. This study aims to define the angiogenic properties of psoriasin in keratinocytes and to investigate the effects on dermal endothelial cells, thereby promoting angiogenesis in psoriasis. We showed that psoriasin expression, demonstrated by qPCR, is induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in keratinocytes and by cellular stress, such as hypoxia and cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Down-regulation of psoriasin, by siRNA, decreased the H2O2-induced expression of VEGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and counteracted the reduction of the anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin (THBS)-1. Extracellularly psoriasin was found to induce cell proliferation, migration and tube formation to a similar degree as VEGF and to induce the pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and IL-8 in dermal endothelial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that psoriasin-induced migration was mediated by the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) signaling pathways. In conclusion, psoriasin is induced by cellular stress conditions and amplifies H2O2-induced expression of angiogenic factors relevant for psoriasis in keratinocytes. Moreover, psoriasin contributes to key features of the angiogenic process by inducing proliferation, migration and tube formation and increasing pro-angiogenic factors in dermal endothelial cell. Altogether, our data suggest that psoriasin is promoted by oxidative stress and mediate angiogenesis in psoriasis.

National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110028 (URN)
Available from: 2014-09-01 Created: 2014-09-01 Last updated: 2015-04-09Bibliographically approved
3. The Expression of Psoriasin (S100A7) and CD24 Is Linked and Related to the Differentiation of Mammary Epithelial Cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Expression of Psoriasin (S100A7) and CD24 Is Linked and Related to the Differentiation of Mammary Epithelial Cells
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2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Psoriasin (S100A7), a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, is highly expressed in high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and in the benign hyperproliferative skin disorder psoriasis. The gene that encodes psoriasin and many other S100 genes are located within a gene cluster on chromosome region 1q21, known as the epidermal differentiation complex. This cluster contains genes for several differentiation markers that play important roles in the terminal differentiation of the epidermis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of psoriasin in the differentiation process of mammary epithelial cells. Normal mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) cultured in confluence and suspension, conditions known to induce psoriasin expression, demonstrated a shift towards a more differentiated phenotype indicated by an increase in the expression of the luminal differentiation markers CD24 and MUC1 and the reduced expression of the breast stem cell marker CD44. The expression of psoriasin and MUC1 was most pronounced in the CD24(+)-enriched fraction of confluent MCF10A cells. The shift towards a more differentiated phenotype was abolished upon the downregulation of psoriasin using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). Using specific inhibitors, we showed that psoriasin and CD24 expression was regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B signaling pathways. While immunohistochemical analyses of DCIS showed heterogeneity, the expression of psoriasin and CD24 showed a similar staining pattern. Our findings suggest that the expression of psoriasin is linked to the luminal differentiation marker CD24 in mammary epithelial cells. Psoriasin demonstrated an essential role in the shift towards a more differentiated CD24(+) phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that psoriasin plays a role in the differentiation of luminal mammary epithelial cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2012
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88366 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0053119 (DOI)000312829100122 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Ingrid Asp Foundation||Swedish Cancer Society||Swedish Psoriasis Association||Welander Foundation||

Available from: 2013-02-04 Created: 2013-02-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06
4. Psoriasin (S100A7) is regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) and contributes to keratinocyte differentiation by regulating the expression of epidermal differentiation markers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psoriasin (S100A7) is regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) and contributes to keratinocyte differentiation by regulating the expression of epidermal differentiation markers
2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by hyperproliferation and a disturbed maturation of the epidermal cells. The differentiation process of keratinocytes in active psoriatic lesions differs from that of normal epidermis, denoted by an altered expression of differentiation markers. Psoriasin, a protein which is highly expressed in psoriasis, is located within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), a gene cluster that contains several genes that are important in the terminal differentiation of the human epidermis. The potential role of psoriasin in keratinocyte differentiation remain however unclear. The aim of this present study was to investigate the possible involvement of psoriasin in keratinocyte differentiation. We demonstrated, by immunohistochemical staining, a gradient of psoriasin expression in the psoriatic epidermis, from an undefined or weak expression in the basal layer to an intense expression in the suprabasal differentiated layers. The expression of psoriasin was up-regulated in cultured keratinocytes in response to stimuli known to induce differentiation, such as an elevation of extracellular calcium or  12-Otetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Down-regulation of psoriasin expression, by siRNA, resulted in decreased expression of the differentiation markers involucrin, desmoglein 1, transglutaminase 1 and CD24. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) counteracted the calciuminduced expression of psoriasin and involucrin. In summary, our data demonstrate that psoriasin is regulated by the PKC signaling pathway and contributes to keratinocyte differentiation by the regulation of differentiation markers.

National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110030 (URN)
Available from: 2014-09-01 Created: 2014-09-01 Last updated: 2015-04-09Bibliographically approved

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Vegfors, Jenny

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