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Combining Vision, Machine Learning and Automatic Control to Play the Labyrinth Game
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6096-3648
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of SSBA, Swedish Symposium on Image Analysis, 2012, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The labyrinth game is a simple yet challenging platform, not only for humans but also for control algorithms and systems. The game is easy to understand but still very hard to master. From a system point of view, the ball behavior is in general easy to model but close to the obstacles there are severe non-linearities. Additionally, the far from flat surface on which the ball rolls provides for changing dynamics depending on the ball position.

The general dynamics of the system can easily be handled by traditional automatic control methods. Taking the obstacles and uneven surface into account would require very detailed models of the system. A simple deterministic control algorithm is combined with a learning control method. The simple control method provides initial training data. As thelearning method is trained, the system can learn from the results of its own actions and the performance improves well beyond the performance of the initial controller.

A vision system and image analysis is used to estimate the ball position while a combination of a PID controller and a learning controller based on LWPR is used to learn to steer the ball through the maze.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012.
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110888OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-110888DiVA: diva2:750037
Conference
Swedish Symposium on Image Analysis for 2012, March 8-9, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2014-09-26 Created: 2014-09-26 Last updated: 2016-06-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Online Learning for Robot Vision
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online Learning for Robot Vision
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In tele-operated robotics applications, the primary information channel from the robot to its human operator is a video stream. For autonomous robotic systems however, a much larger selection of sensors is employed, although the most relevant information for the operation of the robot is still available in a single video stream. The issue lies in autonomously interpreting the visual data and extracting the relevant information, something humans and animals perform strikingly well. On the other hand, humans have great diculty expressing what they are actually looking for on a low level, suitable for direct implementation on a machine. For instance objects tend to be already detected when the visual information reaches the conscious mind, with almost no clues remaining regarding how the object was identied in the rst place. This became apparent already when Seymour Papert gathered a group of summer workers to solve the computer vision problem 48 years ago [35].

Articial learning systems can overcome this gap between the level of human visual reasoning and low-level machine vision processing. If a human teacher can provide examples of what to be extracted and if the learning system is able to extract the gist of these examples, the gap is bridged. There are however some special demands on a learning system for it to perform successfully in a visual context. First, low level visual input is often of high dimensionality such that the learning system needs to handle large inputs. Second, visual information is often ambiguous such that the learning system needs to be able to handle multi modal outputs, i.e. multiple hypotheses. Typically, the relations to be learned  are non-linear and there is an advantage if data can be processed at video rate, even after presenting many examples to the learning system. In general, there seems to be a lack of such methods.

This thesis presents systems for learning perception-action mappings for robotic systems with visual input. A range of problems are discussed, such as vision based autonomous driving, inverse kinematics of a robotic manipulator and controlling a dynamical system. Operational systems demonstrating solutions to these problems are presented. Two dierent approaches for providing training data are explored, learning from demonstration (supervised learning) and explorative learning (self-supervised learning). A novel learning method fullling the stated demands is presented. The method, qHebb, is based on associative Hebbian learning on data in channel representation. Properties of the method are demonstrated on a vision-based autonomously driving vehicle, where the system learns to directly map low-level image features to control signals. After an initial training period, the system seamlessly continues autonomously. In a quantitative evaluation, the proposed online learning method performed comparably with state of the art batch learning methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 62 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1678
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110892 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-110892 (DOI)978-91-7519-228-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-10-24, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 247947Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2014-09-26 Created: 2014-09-26 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved

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Öfjäll, KristofferFelsberg, Michael

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