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Analysis of the piezoelectric and current transport properties of zinc oxide nanostructures grown on fiber
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It seems that nowadays the world is becoming as a small village due to the advancement in communication devices technology. These devices are playing an important role in the wellbeing of our life as almost each and every person is utilizing at least one of these devices. These devices consume energy and with our increased use of technology, we are faced  with energy crises. Therefore, the research community is keen in trying to explore alternative resources. One possibility is to search for the alternative resources from our environment. The attempt in this thesis was to utilize the piezoelectric properties by harvesting electrical energy from nanostructures. By utilizing the piezoelectric property of some materials, mechanical energy can be harvested as electrical output. It is worth mention that the ambient mechanical energy is the most available source of energy around us. Hence it is of interest to utilize it to develop future smart devices having the self-powered property. In this connection various experimental and mathematical techniques have been utilized for achieving this target.

In this thesis zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures grown on textile substrates were the material. The use of textile as substrate is quite unique property of the presented work. Since textile is an essential and fundamental component of our everyday lives, therefore the use of textile as substrate can pave the way for the fabrication of novel self-powered devices. As in comparison with conventional and expensive substrates textile is very economical, lightweight, highly flexible, recyclable, reproducible, disposable, wearable and washable.

I started my research work by integrating ZnO nanorods based nanogenerator on conductive textile fiber for the analysis of piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods. The acceptance of my work among the research community encouraged me to continue with it in order to improve the performance of the fabricated device. It is well known that piezoelectricity is a linear electromechanical coupling of the material in which mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. Therefore, the piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated with regard to different physical parameters. In the electromechanical phenomena the analysis of the direct and the converse piezoelectric effect is also critical if conductive textile is used as a substrate. Therefore analysis of the direct and the converse piezoelectric effect was performed for ZnO nanowires grown on conductive textile fiber by using the nanoindentation method.

Since the morphology of ZnO nanostructures can have an influence on the piezoelectric properties, the energy harvesting properties of ZnO nanoflowers were investigated and the achieved results confirmed that morphology has a strong influence on the piezoelectric properties. In addition, since there is an interest to generate a direct current (DC) piezoelectricity, a Schottky junction fabricated to one side of the nanogenerator material is needed. Therefore, ZnO nanorods based Schottky diode (Cu/ZnO) on textile fabric was fabricated and investigated. Moreover, frequency dependence electrical characterization was performed for analysis of current-transport properties of another Schottky diode (Au/ZnO) for understanding the carrier flow at the interface of the metal-semiconductor. Nevertheless, the consistency and stability of the constructed devices (ZnO nanogenerators and Schottky diodes) need some additional work to overcome these problems to achieve commercial realization of these devices in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 140 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1622
Keyword [en]
Aqueous chemical growth method; Zinc Oxide nanostructures; Textile fabric; Mechanical and Piezoelectric properties; Current-transport properties of Schottky diodes
National Category
Physical Sciences Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110894ISBN: 978-91-7519-234-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-110894DiVA: diva2:750075
Public defence
2014-10-29, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-09-26 Created: 2014-09-26 Last updated: 2014-09-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Piezoelectric nanogenerator based on zinc oxide nanorods grown on textile cotton fabric
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Piezoelectric nanogenerator based on zinc oxide nanorods grown on textile cotton fabric
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2012 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, no 19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This investigation explores piezoelectricity generation from ZnO nanorods, which were grown on silver coated textile cotton fabrics using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. The morphology and crystal structure studies were carried out by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic and high resolution transmission electron microscopic techniques, respectively. ZnO nanorods were highly dense, well aligned, uniform in spatial distribution and exhibited good crystal quality. The generation of piezoelectricity from fabricated ZnO nanorods grown on textile cotton fabrics was measured using contact mode atomic force microscopy. The average output voltage generated from ZnO nanorods was measured to be around 9.5 mV. This investigation is an important achievement regarding the piezoelectricity generation on textile cotton fabric substrate. The fabrication of this device provides an alternative approach for a flexible substrate to develop devices for energy harvesting and optoelectronic technology on textiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2012
Keyword
atomic force microscopy; electric generators; energy harvesting; flexible electronics; II-VI semiconductors; nanofabrication; nanorods; optoelectronic devices; piezoelectric devices; piezoelectricity; scanning electron microscopy; semiconductor growth; transmission electron microscopy; wide band gap semiconductors; X-ray diffraction; zinc compounds
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87217 (URN)10.1063/1.4766921 (DOI)000311320100070 ()
Available from: 2013-01-14 Created: 2013-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06
2. Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate
2014 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 47, no 34, 345102- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present research is devoted to understanding the mechanism and causes of variation in the piezoelectric potential generated from vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs), which were grown on a conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate by using the aqueous chemical growth method. The piezoelectric voltage was harvested from vertically aligned ZnO NRs having different physical parameters by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode and the variation in the generated piezoelectricity was investigated. The generated output potential indicates that different physical parameters such aspect ratio, crystal size and lattice internal crystal strain have a strong influence on the piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which were grown on a textile fabric. Presented results indicate that textiles can be used as an alternative substrate just like the other conventional substrates, because our results are similar/better than many reported works on conventional substrates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2014
Keyword
conductive textile fabric; ZnO nanorods; aqueous chemical growth method; mechanical and piezoelectric properties
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110270 (URN)10.1088/0022-3727/47/34/345102 (DOI)000340236700008 ()
Available from: 2014-09-05 Created: 2014-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Analysis of direct and converse piezoelectric responses from zinc oxide nanowires grown on a conductive fabric
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of direct and converse piezoelectric responses from zinc oxide nanowires grown on a conductive fabric
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2015 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 212, no 3, 579-584 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Single crystalline hexagonal wurtzite zinc oxide nanowires were grown on conductive commercial textile fabric as piezoelectric material. Aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method was used for the synthesis of ZnO nanowires. Field emission surface scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for surface and structural analysis of grown nanowires. The mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the nanowires were investigated by nanoindantation. Piezoelectric potentials up to 0.013 V were measured in response to direct applied loads in the range 0 - 11 mN. Also, a DC voltage was applied for measurement of converse piezoelectric response under a low constant applied force (~5 μN) and the piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 33.2 pm/V. This study performed on commercial conductive textile demonstrates the feasibility to fabricate wearable nanogenerator clothing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Keyword
zinc oxide nanowires; conductive fabric; aqueous chemical growth; piezoelectricity
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110893 (URN)10.1002/pssa.201431625 (DOI)000351530800015 ()
Note

On the day of the defence date of the Ph.D. Thesis, the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-09-26 Created: 2014-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Harvesting piezoelectric potential from zinc oxide nanoflowers grown on textile fabric substrate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Harvesting piezoelectric potential from zinc oxide nanoflowers grown on textile fabric substrate
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2013 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 7, no 11, 980-984 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ZnO nanoflowers were synthesized on conductive flexible textile fabric substrate by using the simple low-temperature aqueous chemical growth method and were used for piezoelectric energy harvesting source. Structural characterization of ZnO nanoflowers was carried out by using surface scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ZnO nanoflowers are uniformly grown over the entire sample. They are composed of needle-like nanorods, which have hexagonal wurtzite structure with good crystalline quality. The current-voltage characteristics showed good rectifying Schottky behaviour. Contact-mode atomic force microscopy was used for measuring the piezoelectric output potential. The maximum output potential was found to be more than 600 mV and the corresponding current also recorded was near approximate to 650 nA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2013
Keyword
textiles; aqueous chemical growth; ZnO; nanoflowers; energy harvesting; piezoelectric properties
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103308 (URN)10.1002/pssr.201308105 (DOI)000328321700011 ()
Available from: 2014-01-16 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06
5. Study of transport properties of copper/zinc-oxide-nanorods-based Schottky diode fabricated on textile fabric
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of transport properties of copper/zinc-oxide-nanorods-based Schottky diode fabricated on textile fabric
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2013 (English)In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 28, no 12, 125006- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, a copper/zinc-oxide (ZnO)-nanorods-based Schottky diode was fabricated on the textile fabric substrate. ZnO nanorods were grown on a silver-coated textile fabric substrate by using the hydrothermal route. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used for the structural study. The electrical characterization of copper/ZnO-nanorods-based Schottky diodes was investigated by using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and an impedance spectrometer. The current density-voltage (J-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were used to estimate the electrical parameters. The threshold voltage (V-th), ideality factor (eta), barrier height (phi(b)), reverse saturation current density (J(s)), carrier concentration (N-D) and built-in potential (V-bi) were determined by using experimental data and (simulated) curve fitting. This study describes the possible fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices on textile fabric substrate with an acceptable performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics: Hybrid Open Access, 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102717 (URN)10.1088/0268-1242/28/12/125006 (DOI)000327467300012 ()
Available from: 2013-12-19 Created: 2013-12-19 Last updated: 2017-08-29
6. Analysis of junction properties of gold-zinc oxide nanorods-based Schottky diode by means of frequency dependent electrical characterization on textile
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of junction properties of gold-zinc oxide nanorods-based Schottky diode by means of frequency dependent electrical characterization on textile
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 9, 3434-3441 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Present work is an effort to reveal the junction properties of gold/zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods-based Schottky diode by using the frequency dependent electrical properties. The most important electrical parameters such as conductance, resistance, capacitance, and impedance were studied as function of frequency across the series of AC voltages. Moreover, current density-voltage (J-V) was measured to know the performance of present Schottky diode. The effect of native defects was also studied by using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured at different accelerating voltage. The textile substrate was used for the growth of ZnO nanorods by using the aqueous chemical growth method and Schottky diode fabrication. Diode fabrication on textile fabric is a step forward toward the fabrication of electronic devices on nonconventional, economical, soft, light weight, flexible, wearable, washable, recyclable, reproducible, and nontoxic substrate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag (Germany), 2014
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105403 (URN)10.1007/s10853-014-8053-2 (DOI)000331388000016 ()
Available from: 2014-03-21 Created: 2014-03-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05

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