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A Flexible Sandwich Nanogenerator for Harvesting Piezoelectric Potential from Single Crystalline Zinc Oxide Nanowires
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6235-7038
2014 (English)In: Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1847-9804, Vol. 4, no 24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-quality single crystalline zinc oxide nanowires were grown on silver and gold coated plastic substrates for the fabrication of a sandwich-like nanogenerator using the aqueous chemical growth method. The applicability of this configuration as a nanogenerator is demonstrated by studying the harvested electrical output under mechanical deformation. Three different configurations were fabricated and utilized for harvesting piezoelectric potential by applying an external force. The maximum resulting output open circuit voltage and short circuit current were 2.4 V and 152.2 mu A, respectively. The comparison between the different configurations indicates that more piezoelectric potential can be harvested by using two arrays of ZnO NWs placed face-to-face than by using a single nanowire configuration. In addition, the use of a piezoelectric polymer will enhance the amount of generated piezoelectric potential. The obtained results from different configurations of zinc oxide nanowire nanogenerators offer a cost-effective, flexible, long term stable nanogenerator for promising application. The principle of the sandwich nanogenerator demonstrated a new idea for novel self-powering nanotechnology that harvests electricity from the environment for applications such as portable electronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InTech, 2014. Vol. 4, no 24
Keyword [en]
Aqueous chemical Growth Method; Zinc Oxide Nanowires; Flexible Sandwich Nanogenerator
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111449DOI: 10.5772/59068ISI: 000342088500001OAI: diva2:757288
Available from: 2014-10-21 Created: 2014-10-17 Last updated: 2016-10-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Development of Zinc Oxide Piezoelectric Nanogenerators for Low Frequency Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Zinc Oxide Piezoelectric Nanogenerators for Low Frequency Applications
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy harvesting using piezoelectric nanomaterials provides an opportunity for advancement towards self-powered systems. Self-powered systems are a new emerging technology, which allows the use of a system or a device that perform a function without the need for external power source like for example, a battery or any other type of source. This technology can for example use harvested energy from sources around us such as ambient mechanical vibrations, noise, and human movement, etc. and convert it to electric energy using the piezoelectric effect. For nanoscale devices, the size of traditional batteries is not suitable and will lead to loss of the concept of “nano”. This is due to the large size and the relatively large magnitude of the delivered power from traditional sources. The development of a nanogenerator (NG) to convert energy from the environment into electric energy would facilitate the development of some self-powered systems relying on nano- devices.

The main objective of this thesis is to fabricate a piezoelectric Zinc Oxide (ZnO) NGs for low frequency (˂ 100 Hz) energy harvesting applications. For that, different types of NGs based on ZnO nanostructures have been carefully developed, and studied for testing under different kinds of low frequency mechanical deformations. Well aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) possessing high piezoelectric coefficient were synthesized on flexible substrates using the low temperature hydrothermal route. These ZnO NWs were then used in different configurations to demonstrate different low frequency energy harvesting devices.

Using piezoelectric ZnO NWs, we started with the fabrication of sandwiched NG for hand writing enabled energy harvesting device based on a thin silver layer coated paper substrate. Such device configurations can be used for the development of electronic programmable smart paper. Further, we developed this NG to work as a triggered sensor for wireless system using foot-step pressure. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using ZnO NWs piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self-powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. After that, we investigated and fabricated a sensor on PEDOT: PSS plastic substrate either by one side growth technique or by using double sided growth. For the first growth technique, the fabricated NG has been used as a sensor for acceleration system; while the fabricated NG by the second technique has worked as anisotropic directional sensor. This fabricated configurations showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance, security, and auto-mobil applications. In addition to that, we investigated the fabrication of a sandwiched NG on plastic substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that doping ZnO NWs with extrinsic element (such as Ag) will lead to the reduction of the piezoelectric effect due to the loss of crystal symmetry. A brief summary into future opportunities and challenges are also presented in the last chapter of this thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 48 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1787
Zinc oxide (ZnO), hydrothermal growth, piezoelectricity, nanowires (NWs), nanogenerator (NG), energy harvesting, wireless data transmission
National Category
Nano Technology Physical Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131858 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-131858 (DOI)9789176856932 (Print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-11, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Available from: 2016-10-11 Created: 2016-10-11 Last updated: 2016-10-13Bibliographically approved

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