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Time is of the essence in speech perception!: Get it fast, or think about it
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Lyssna nu! : Hör rätt direkt, eller klura på det! (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis examined the extent to which background noise influences the isolation point (IP, the shortest time from the onset of speech stimulus required for correct identification of that speech stimulus) and accuracy in identification of different types of speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in high-predictable [HP] and low-predictable [LP] sentences). These speech stimuli were presented in different modalities of presentation (auditory, visual, and audiovisual) to young normal-hearing listeners (Papers 1, 2, and 5). In addition, the present thesis studied under what conditions cognitive resources were explicitly demanded in identification of different types of speech stimuli (Papers 1 and 2). Further, elderly hearing-aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners were compared with regard to the IPs, accuracy, and under what conditions explicit cognitive resources were demanded in identification of auditory speech stimuli in silence (Paper 3). The results showed that background noise resulted in later IPs and reduced the accuracy for the identification of different types of speech stimuli in both modalities of speech presentation. Explicit cognitive resources were demanded in identification of speech stimuli in the auditory-only modality, under the noisy condition, and in the absence of a prior semantic context. In addition, audiovisual presentation of speech stimuli resulted in earlier IPs and more accurate identification of speech stimuli than auditory presentation. Furthermore, a pre-exposure to audiovisual speech stimuli resulted in better auditory speech-in-noise identification than an exposure to auditory-only speech stimuli (Papers 2 and 4). When comparing EHA users and ENH individuals, the EHA users showed inferior performance in the identification of consonants, words, and final words in LP sentences (in terms of IP). In terms of accuracy, the EHA users demonstrated inferior performance only in the identification of consonants and words. Only the identification of consonants and words demanded explicit cognitive resources in the EHA users. Theoretical predictions and clinical implications were discussed.

Abstract [sv]

I denna avhandling undersöktes hur mycket bakgrundsbuller inverkar på isolationspunkten (IP, den tidigaste tidpunkt när ett talat stimulus kan identifieras korrekt) och exakthet i identifikation av olika typer av talade stimuli (konsonanter, ord, och ord i final position i högt predicerbara [HP] respektive lågt predicerbara [LP] meningar). Dessa talade stimuli presenterades i olika modaliteteter (auditivt, visuellt, och audiovisuellt) för unga normalhörande deltagare (Artikel 1, 2 och 5). Dessutom jämfördes under vilka betingelser explicita kognitiva resurser krävdes för identifikation av olika typer av talade stimuli (Artikel 1 och 2). Vidare jämfördes äldre hörapparatsanvändare (EHA) och äldre normalhörande (ENH) personer med avseende på IP, exakthet i identifikation, och under vilka betingelser explicita kognitiva resurser krävdes för auditiv identifikation i tystnad (d.v.s. utan bakgrundsbuller) (Artikel 3). Resultaten visade att bakgrundsbuller gav senare IP och sänkte exaktheten för identifikation av olika typer av talade stimuli och i båda modaliteterna för presentation. Explicita kognitiva resurser krävdes vid identifikation av talade stimuli vid rent auditiv presentation med bakgrundsbuller, och när ingen semantisk förhandsinformation presenterades. Dessutom resulterade audiovisuell presentation i tidigare IP och mer exakt identifikation av talade stimuli, jämfört med rent auditiv presentation. Ett ytterligare resultat var att förexponering av audiovisuella talade stimuli resulterade i bättre identifikation av tal i bakgrundsbrus, jämfört med förexponering av enbart auditiva talade stimuli (Artikel 2 och 4). Vid jämförelse av EHA-användare och ENH-personer, hade EHA-användare senare IP i identifikation av konsonanter, ord, och ord i final position i LP-meningar. Dessutom hade EHA-användare mindre exakt identifikation av konsonanter och ord. Endast identifikation av konsonanter och ord krävde explicita kognitiva resurser hos EHA-användare. Teoretiska prediktioner och kliniska implikationer diskuterades.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 56 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 635Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 68
Keyword [en]
Noise, auditory speech perception, audiovisual speech perception, hearing aids
Keyword [sv]
Buller, hörsel, auditiv talperception, audiovisuell talperception, hörhjälpmedel
National Category
Other Medical Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111723DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-111723ISBN: 978-91-7519-188-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-111723DiVA: diva2:759121
Public defence
2014-11-28, I:101, Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 14:00 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-10-29 Created: 2014-10-29 Last updated: 2014-10-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Gated auditory speech perception: effects of listening conditions and cognitive capacity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gated auditory speech perception: effects of listening conditions and cognitive capacity
2014 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, no 531Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to measure the initial portion of signal required for the correct identification of auditory speech stimuli (or isolation points, IPs) in silence and noise, and to investigate the relationships between auditory and cognitive functions in silence and noise. Twenty-one university students were presented with auditory stimuli in a gating paradigm for the identification of consonants, words, and final words in highly predictable and low predictable sentences. The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT), the reading span test, and the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test were also administered to measure speech-in-noise ability, working memory and attentional capacities of the participants, respectively. The results showed that noise delayed the identification of consonants, words, and final words in highly predictable and low predictable sentences. HINT performance correlated with working memory and attentional capacities. In the noise condition, there were correlations between HINT performance, cognitive task performance, and the IPs of consonants and words. In the silent condition, there were no correlations between auditory and cognitive tasks. In conclusion, a combination of hearing-in-noise ability, working memory capacity, and attention capacity is needed for the early identification of consonants and words in noise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Research Foundation, 2014
Keyword
Gating Paradigm, Auditory Perception, Consonant, Word, Final Word in Sentence, Silence, Noise
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107008 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00531 (DOI)000337545700001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 349-2007-8654
Available from: 2014-06-02 Created: 2014-06-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Gated audiovisual speech identification in silence vs. noise: effects on time and accuracy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gated audiovisual speech identification in silence vs. noise: effects on time and accuracy
2013 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 00359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the degree to which audiovisual presentation (compared to auditory-only presentation) affected isolation point (IPs, the amount of time required for the correct identification of speech stimuli using a gating paradigm) in silence and noise conditions. The study expanded on the findings of Moradi et al. (under revision), using the same stimuli, but presented in an audiovisual instead of an auditory-only manner. The results showed that noise impeded the identification of consonants and words (i.e., delayed IPs and lowered accuracy), but not the identification of final words in sentences. In comparison with the previous study by Moradi et al., it can be concluded that the provision of visual cues expedited IPs and increased the accuracy of speech stimuli identification in both silence and noise. The implication of the results is discussed in terms of models for speech understanding.

Keyword
audiovisual identification, gating paradigm, consonant, word, final word in sentences, silence, noise
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-94239 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00359 (DOI)000331047800001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 349-2007-8654
Available from: 2013-06-19 Created: 2013-06-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06
3. Gated auditory speech perception in elderly hearing aid users and elderly normal-hearing individuals: effects of hearing impairment and cognitive capacity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gated auditory speech perception in elderly hearing aid users and elderly normal-hearing individuals: effects of hearing impairment and cognitive capacity
2014 (English)In: Trends in Hearing, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) individuals on identification of auditory speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final word in sentences) that were different when considering their linguistic properties. We measured the accuracy with which the target speech stimuli were identified, as well as the isolation points (IPs: the shortest duration, from onset, required to correctly identify the speech target). The relationships between working memory capacity, the IPs, and speech accuracy were also measured. Twenty-four EHA users (with mild to moderate hearing impairment) and 24 ENH individuals participated in the present study. Despite the use of their regular hearing aids, the EHA users had delayed IPs and were less accurate in identifying consonants and words compared with the ENH individuals. The EHA users also had delayed IPs for final word identification in sentences with lower predictability; however, no significant between-group difference in accuracy was observed. Finally, there were no significant between-group differences in terms of IPs or accuracy for final word identification in highly predictable sentences. Our results also showed that, among EHA users, greater working memory capacity was associated with earlier IPs and improved accuracy in consonant and word identification. Together, our findings demonstrate that the gated speech perception ability of EHA users was not at the level of ENH individuals, in terms of IPs and accuracy. In addition, gated speech perception was more cognitively demanding for EHA users than for ENH individuals in the absence of semantic context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014
Keyword
hearing aid users, gating paradigm, speech perception, cognition
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109067 (URN)10.1177/2331216514545406 (DOI)000343753700007 ()25085610 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 349-2007-8654
Available from: 2014-08-04 Created: 2014-08-04 Last updated: 2015-08-12Bibliographically approved
4. Audiovisual training is better than auditory-only training for auditory-only speech-in-noise identification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Audiovisual training is better than auditory-only training for auditory-only speech-in-noise identification
2014 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 136, no 2, EL142-EL147 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of audiovisual versus auditory training for speech-in-noise identification were examined in 60 young participants. The training conditions were audiovisual training, auditory-only training, and no training (n = 20 each). In the training groups, gated consonants and words were presented at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio; stimuli were either audiovisual or auditory-only. The no-training group watched a movie clip without performing a speech identification task. Speech-in-noise identification was measured before and after the training (or control activity). Results showed that only audiovisual training improved speech-in-noise identification, demonstrating superiority over auditory-only training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014
Keyword
Audiovisual training, audio training, speech-in-noise identification
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108989 (URN)10.1121/1.4890200 (DOI)000341178100014 ()25096138 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 006-6917
Available from: 2014-07-19 Created: 2014-07-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Comparison of informational vs. energetic masking effects on speechreading performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of informational vs. energetic masking effects on speechreading performance
2014 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, no 639Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of two types of auditory distracters (steady-state noise vs. four-talker babble) on visual-only speechreading accuracy were tested against a baseline (silence) in 23 participants with above-average speechreading ability. Their task was to speechread high frequency Swedish words. They were asked to rate their own performance and effort, and report how distracting each type of auditory distracter was. Only four-talker babble impeded speechreading accuracy. This suggests competition for phonological processing, since the four-talker babble demands phonological processing, which is also required for the speechreading task. Better accuracy was associated with lower self-rated effort in silence; no other correlations were found.

Keyword
speechperception, cognition, speechreading, informational masking, energetic masking
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108990 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00639 (DOI)000338723500001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2006–6917
Available from: 2014-07-19 Created: 2014-07-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Moradi, Shahram

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