liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden .
Show others and affiliations
2014 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 4, 377-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

To examine eye tracking data and compare visual behavior in individuals with normal hearing (NH) and with moderate hearing loss (HL) during two types of driving conditions: normal driving and driving while performing a secondary task.

Methods

24 participants with HL and 24 with NH were exposed to normal driving and to driving with a secondary task (observation and recall of 4 visually displayed letters). Eye movement behavior was assessed during normal driving by the following performance indicators: number of glances away from the road; mean duration of glances away from the road; maximum duration of glances away from the road; and percentage of time looking at the road. During driving with the secondary task, eye movement data were assessed in terms of number of glances to the secondary task display, mean duration of glances to the secondary task display, and maximum duration of glances to the secondary task display. The secondary task performance was assessed as well, counting the number of correct letters, the number of skipped letters, and the number of correct letters ignoring order.

Results

While driving with the secondary task, drivers with HL looked twice as often in the rear-view mirror than during normal driving and twice as often as drivers with NH regardless of condition. During secondary task, the HL group looked away from the road more frequently but for shorter durations than the NH group. Drivers with HL had fewer correct letters and more skipped letters than drivers with NH.

Conclusions

Differences in visual behavior between drivers with NH and with HL are bound to the driving condition. Driving with a secondary task, drivers with HL spend as much time looking away from the road as drivers with NH, however with more frequent and shorter glances away. Secondary task performance is lower for the HL group, suggesting this group is less willing to perform this task. The results also indicate that drivers with HL use fewer but more focused glances away than drivers with NH, they also perform a visual scan of the surrounding traffic environment before looking away towards the secondary task display.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014. Vol. 6, no 4, 377-385 p.
Keyword [en]
Hearing loss; Driving simulator; Visual behavior; Cognitive workload
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111932DOI: 10.1007/s12544-014-0139-zISI: 000209729200003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84920249351OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-111932DiVA: diva2:762064
Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2017-06-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effects of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Effekter av hörselnedsättning på trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet
Abstract [en]

The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate traffic safety and mobility for individuals with hearing loss (HL). Three studies were conducted: 1. a questionnaire survey aimed to evaluate differences in choice of transportation that might be related to HL, 2. a driving simulator study that looked into compensatory strategies and evaluated the efficiency of a tactile signal to alert the driver, and 3. a field study to evaluate these effects in real traffic and to evaluate a navigation system with a supportive tactile signal. The effects of HL discovered in this thesis add to the knowledge and understanding of the influence of HL on traffic safety and mobility. Differences found consistently point to a generally more cautious behavior. Compensatory and coping strategies associated with HL are bound to driving complexity and appear when complexity increases. These strategies include driving at lower speeds, using a more comprehensive visual search behavior and being less engaged in distracting activities. Evaluation of a tactile signal showed that by adding a tactile modality, some driver assistance systems can also be made accessible to drivers with HL. At the same time, the systems might be more effective for all users, since the driver can be more focused on the road. Based on the results in this thesis, drivers with HL cannot be considered an increased traffic safety risk, and there should be no need for adjustments of the requirements of hearing for a license to drive a car.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med den här doktorsavhandlingen var att undersöka trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet för individer med hörselnedsättning (HN). Tre studier har genomförts: 1. en enkätstudie för att undersöka skillnader i transportvanor relaterade till HN, 2. en körsimulatorstudie for att titta på kompensatoriska strategier och utvärdera effektiviteten i en taktil signal för att påkalla förarens uppmärksamhet och 3. en fältstudie för att undersöka effekterna i riktig trafik samt utvärdera ett navigationssystem med en taktil signal som stöd för navigering. Effekterna av HN som kom fram i denna avhandling bidrar till kunskapen och förståelsen för hur HN påverkar trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet. De funna skillnaderna pekar konsistent mot ett generelltmera försiktigt beteende. Kompensatoriska - och copingstrategier förknippade med HN beror på körkomplexitet och observeras när komplexiteten ökar. Dessa strategier innebär körning med lägre hastighet, mera heltäckande visuell avsökning och mindre engagemang i distraherande uppgifter. Utvärdering av en taktil signal visade att genom att lägga till en taktil modalitet kan vissa förarstödsystem bli tillgängliga även för förare med HN. Samtidigt kan systemen bli mera effektiva för alla användare eftersom föraren då kan fokusera mera på vägen. Baserat på resultaten i den här avhandlingen kan inte förare med HN betraktas som någon förhöjd risk och det bör därmed inte finnas något behov av att justera hörselkraven när det gäller körkortsinnehav.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 81 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 636Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 69
Keyword
Hearing loss, traffic safety, cognitive workload, tactile support, Hörselnedsättning, trafiksäkerhet, kognitiv belastning, taktilt stöd
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111933 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-111933 (DOI)978-91-7519-178-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-05, I:101, Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2015-01-28Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(763 kB)137 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 763 kBChecksum SHA-512
9cbece8e9fa605c8d353ab446807647730aacafb30867c3dba7c487d2328e4a081554dcb7dbe83119177e75039b7969b7370d5646a41c4060900514ea37bd2e8
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records BETA

Thorslund, BirgittaAhlström, ChristerLidestam, BjörnLyxell, Björn

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Thorslund, BirgittaAhlström, ChristerLidestam, BjörnLyxell, Björn
By organisation
Department of Behavioural Sciences and LearningThe Swedish Institute for Disability ResearchFaculty of Arts and SciencesPsychologyDisability ResearchDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping
In the same journal
European Transport Research Review
Social Sciences InterdisciplinaryOther Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 137 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 226 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf