Optical properties of novel semiconductor nanostructures
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Semiconductor nanostructures, such as one-dimensional nanowires (NWs) and zerodimensional quantum dots (QDs), have recently gained increasing interest due to their unique physical properties that are found attractive for a wide variety of applications ranging from gas sensing and spintronics to optoelectronics and photonics. Here, especially promising are nanostructures based on compound semiconductors, including ZnO, GaNP and GaAs/InAs. For examples, ZnO NWs are used for gas sensing. They also serve as an active material in UV light sources, owing to its wide band gap combined with a large exciton binding energy. GaNP NWs are a novel material system that allows realization of efficient amber lightemitting diodes and novel intermediate-band solar cells with an anticipated high efficiency. InAs QDs formed in the GaAs matrix are efficient emitters of near IR light and can be utilized in future spin-functional devices for applications in spintronics and quantum information processing. The realization of the full potential of semiconductor nanostructures requires detailed knowledge of their electronic and structural properties which is far from being complete at the present stage of research. In this thesis we address some of these important issues using optical characterization techniques, such as micro-Raman and microphotoluminescence (μ-PL) spectroscopies.
In paper I we use Raman spectroscopy to investigate effects of metallization by nickel on electronic and structural properties of ZnO/Ni core/shell NWs. We show that coating ZnO NWs with Ni shells causes passivation of surface states whereas subsequent annealing leads to formation of new defects, evident from appearance of the corresponding local vibrational modes. Ni coating is also found to strongly enhance the multiline Raman signal involving A1(LO) phonon scattering, based on the performed resonant Raman studies. This is attributed to an enhanced Fröhlich interaction at the ZnO/Ni heterointerface combined with coupling of the scattered light with local surface plasmons excited in the Ni shell. The latter effect is also suggested to allow detection of carbon-related species absorbed at the surface of a single ZnO/Ni NW, promising for utilizing such structures as efficient nano-sized gas sensors.
In paper II we study polarization properties of GaNP nanowires and related axial structures. By employing polarization resolved μ-PL spectroscopy performed on a single NW, we show that alloying with nitrogen allows one to achieve strong orthogonal polarization of light emission even in zinc-blende nanowires of various diameters and that the polarization anisotropy can be retained up to room temperature. This polarization response, which is unusual for zinc blende NWs, is attributed to the local strain in the vicinity of the N-related centers participating in the radiative recombination and to the preferential alignment of their principal axis along the growth direction. Our findings therefore show that defect engineering via alloying with nitrogen provides an additional degree of freedom to control the polarization anisotropy of III-V nanowires, advantageous for their applications as nanoscale emitters of polarized light.
In paper III we investigate exciton fine-structure splitting (FSS) in self-organized InGaAs/GaAs nanostructures including laterally-aligned double quantum dots (DQDs), quantum-dot clusters (QCs) and quantum rings (QRs), by employing polarization resolved μ-PL spectroscopy. We find a clear trend in FSS between the studied nanostructures depending on their geometric arrangements, from a large FSS in the DQDs to a smaller FSS in the QCs and QRs with an overall higher geometric symmetry. This trend is accompanied by a corresponding difference in the polarization directions of the excitonic emissions between these nanostructures, namely, the bright-exciton lines are linearly polarized along or perpendicular to a specific crystallographic axis in the DQDs structure that also defines the alignment of the two QDs, whereas in the QCs and QRs the polarization directions are randomly oriented. We attribute these trends to the interplay between intrinsic effects, such as a statistic shape deviation, atomistic randomness and strain-induced piezoelectricity. Our work demonstrates that FSS can be effectively controlled by geometric engineering of the nanostructures, capable of reducing FSS to the limit similar to strain-free QDs and thus providing a new pathway in fabricating high-symmetry quantum emitters desirable for realizing photon entanglement and spintronic devices based on such nanostructures.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. , 34 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1691
Physical Sciences Nano Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112355ISBN: 978-91-7519-185-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-112355DiVA: diva2:765605
2014-12-17, Jordan-Fermi, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:30 (English)
Pozina, Galia, Dr.
Buyanova, Irina, ProfessorChen, Weimin, Professor
The series name Linköping Studies in Science and Technology Licentiate Thesis is incorrect. The correct series name is Linköping Studies in Science and Technology Thesis.2014-11-242014-11-242014-11-24Bibliographically approved
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